John Armstrong had a lengthy presentation at the Lancer "November in Dallas" conference on Friday night, November 20. He had originally been scheduled to make a shorter version of the same presentation at the COPA conference on Sunday, November 22, but for reasons not pertinent here, cancelled it.

The following, then, is based on a presentation I did not see. Mr. Armstrong was kind enough to give me a copy of his speech, but there are several caveats to its appearance here. Most important, perhaps, is that I am shortening it considerably, with John's full knowledge and consent.

It is also important to understand that it is published here without the many slides and other documentation that accompanied the Lancer presentation.

The complete text is due to appear in an upcoming issue of Fair Play --- probably the next one. I expect to work with John in adapting it to this forum, and hope to have at least some of the graphics that go with it.

Any mistakes that appear in the version that follows are mine. --- JK

Oswald: The Evidence Not Shown
to the Warren Commission/HSCA

FBI Suppression, Manipulation, and
Handling of Evidence

by John Armstrong

edited by John Kelin

"In 1996, one of the FBl's top scientists, Frederick Whitehurst, disclosed that the FBI crime lab had fabricated evidence in the World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings. Is anyone surprised? They were fabricating evidence in the Kennedy assassination 35 years ago and tonight I'll show you a few examples how this was done.

"On the evening of the assassination FBI director Hoover told Lyndon Johnson 'we have up here the tape recording and the photograph of the man who was at the Soviet embassy using Oswald's name. That picture and tape recording do not correspond to this man's voice, nor to his appearance. In other words, it appears that there is a second person who was at the Soviet embassy down there.'

"A second person? Lyndon Johnson understood. Johnson's aide Cliff Carter ordered Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade 'not to allege a conspiracy,' and then ordered Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry to turn over all evidence to the FBI. Curry told the Warren Commission 'about midnight Friday night --- November 22 --- we agreed to let the FBI have all the evidence and they said they would have an agent stand by and when they were finished with it, return it to us.' The evidence consisted of Oswald's possessions taken by Dallas Police from the Paine house and 1026 N. Beckley."

Armstrong said that FBI document specialist James Cadigan received Oswald's possessions in Washington, DC, the evening of November 23. Cadigan's original deposition refers to "four or five hundred" items, although references to November 23 were deleted from his published Warren Commission testimony.

Officially, the FBI did not enter the JFK case until November 26. It was not officially recorded that the FBI had Oswald's possessions in Washington for three days before returning them to Dallas.

After they were returned to the Dallas P.D., Oswald's possessions were photographed on five rolls film. "Each of the 455 items were numbered, photographed, and inventoried," Armstrong said. "When the FBI took over the investigation on November 26, the Dallas Police turned over their evidence and undeveloped film. They requested the FBI process and return three prints of each item."

But the FBI did not return any of the photos to the Dallas Police, nor any of the original five rolls of film. Instead, Armstrong said, they altered the police film. "The first roll contained negatives #1 through #163. The second, third, and fourth rolls of film disappeared entirely. The fifth roll contained negatives #361 to #451. The FBI altered negatives on roll #1 and roll #5. They then copied roll #1 and roll #5 and returned the copies to the Dallas Police on December 1st."

Chief Curry noticed the missing negatives and notified the FBI the next day. "The missing negatives were blamed on the Dallas Police photographer. They said he used 'faulty technique' when photographing Oswald's possessions. If there was any 'faulty technique' it could be seen, frame by frame, on the original film; but all 5 original rolls disappeared while in FBI custody.

"All that remains are the two copied rolls, available from the Dallas Archives. These rolls show us which frames the FBI removed and which frames they altered. The first roll of film stops at negative 163. Negatives 168, 169 and 175 are Oswald's w-2 tax forms, which are listed on [an] FBI inventory form [and] are supposed to follow the negatives shown on [the] film."

The original Dallas Police film, which allegedly contained negatives of the w-2 forms, was cut and a blank strip of film spliced in, Armstrong said. "Officers Rose, Stowell and Adamcik followed police procedure by initialing each item to establish a chain of evidence. Each item was then listed on their handwritten inventory. But there are no Dallas Police initals on the w-2 forms found in the National Archives. None were listed on the handwritten or typed Dallas Police inventories. None are among the items photographed on the floor of the Dallas Police station. These w-2 forms, which appear to have been typed with the same typewriter, are listed on the FBI/Dallas Police inventory only after Oswald's possessions were returned from Washington. Each w-2 form has the initials of FBI laboratory technician Robert Frazier. The fact is that there is no evidence that any of these w-2 forms were found at Ruth Paine's house."

* * *

"A small German camera was found and initialed by Gus Rose," Armstrong said. "It was listed on the handwritten inventory, the typed inventory and the Dallas Police/FBI inventory. The chain of custody for the Minox camera from the Paine's garage to the FBI is complete. The camera and 8 other items were photographed by the Dallas Police and the undeveloped film given to the FBI. But by the time copies of the film were returned to the Dallas Police, the negative had been altered."

The alteration removed the Minox camera from the image, Armstrong said. "It would be difficult to explain why a common laborer possessed an expensive Minox spy camera," and indeed there were rumors at the time that Oswald was an FBI informant. "Anything that hinted of a connection between Oswald and the intelligence community was suppressed." At the request of the FBI, the police property invoice was changed from "Minox camera" to "Minox light meter." The FBI changed their inventory as well, and "photographed a light meter and returned the photograph to the Dallas Police. They never did explain the numerous rolls of Minox film listed on their inventory," Armstrong said.

"Two months later the FBI allegedly picked up a Minox camera from Michael Paine, described as rusty and inoperable. They then told the public that the Minox camera belonged to Michael Paine. Michael Paine said in a television interview that the camera had been returned to him by the FBI in the summer of 1964. He then said that his apartment was burglarized and all of his camera equipment, including his Minox camera, was lost. But in the National Archives, there is a Minox camera in mint condition --- the one found by Gus Rose in the Paine garage."

* * *

"The last example of evidence alteration I will discuss is the most difficult to follow. It involves the two Oswald wallets found in Oak Cliff and is detailed in Dale Myers' new book With Malice.

"A wallet was found at the scene of the Tippit murder by Dallas Police which contained identification for Lee Harvey Oswald and Alik Hidell. Twenty minutes later a different wallet was taken from Oswald's left rear pocket by Detective Paul Bentley. This wallet, the 'arrest wallet,' also contained identification for Lee Harvey Oswald and Alik Hidell. Both wallets remained in custody of the Dallas Police from November 22nd until November 26th."

Bentley turned over Oswalds "arrest wallet" to Lt. Baker. The wallet and contents were kept in the property room until turned over to the FBI. Photographs of the "arrest wallet" and contents were taken by the Dallas Police on November 23rd and given to the FBI and Secret Service. The wallet found at the Tippit murder scene turned up in Captain Fritz's desk drawer where it remained until November 27th.

On November 25th, Oswald's possessions were returned from Washington to be inventoried and photographed. The FBI inventory listed two wallets --- items #114 and #382 --- yet neither was "Oswald's arrest wallet" or the "wallet from Tippit murder scene". These inventory sheets showed the wallets coming from Ruth Paine's house. But neither wallet was initialed by Dallas Police. Neither wallet was listed on the Dallas Police handwritten inventory completed at Ruth Paine's house. Neither wallet was listed on the Dallas Police typed inventory --- which became Warren Commission exhibits. Neither wallet was photographed among Oswald's possessions on the floor of the Dallas Police station. Yet two wallets were listed on the FBI inventory. Where did they come from? Were they on the Dallas Police evidence film?

"To answer that question, I looked at the two rolls of film returned to the Dallas Police by the FBI," Armstrong said. "Item #114 was listed as 'brown billfold with Marine group photograph.' But negative #114 showed only the Marine group photo...

"Item #382 was listed on the FBI inventory as 'red billfold and one scrap of white paper with Russian script'. But negative #382 showed only the paper with Russian script." When a photograph was made from this negative the red billfold, allegedly from Ruth Paine's house, disappeared.

"Both negatives were altered between the time the Dallas police turned over their original undeveloped film to the FBI and the FBI returned copies of that film to the police. Why cause the wallets in the original film to disappear? Because the original photos taken by the Dallas Police were probably photographs of the 'arrest wallet' and the 'Tippit murder scene wallet' --- two wallets which contained identification for Oswald and Hidell which would have been unexplainable.

"To find out what happened to 'Oswald's arrest wallet' and the 'Tippit murder scene wallet' we must again look at the Dallas Police film. The 2nd roll of film begins in the middle of negative #361 and ends in the middle of negative #451. All of the negative images after #451, with one exception, were ruined. The one exception is the negative image of a wallet. When the negative image is developed into a photograph you can see that it is 'Oswald's arrest wallet...'"

With the "Oswald arrest wallet" in Washington, the "Tippit murder scene wallet" remained in Captain Fritz's desk drawer. On November 27th, James Hosty picked up the "Tippit murdar scene wallet" from Fritz and gave Fritz a signed receipt. Hosty then took that wallet and other items obtained from Fritz to the Dallas FBI office. According to Hosty, these items were neither photogaphed nor inventoried. They were placed in a box and flown to Washington by Warren DeBreuys. Two days later the Dallas Police notified the FBl they had failed to photograph the wallet and contents and wanted photos. The FBI ignored this request and never photographed the "Tippit murder scene wallet". The only known photos of this wallet are from the WFAA newsreel film.

When the FBI finished altering Oswald's possessions, Hoover sent a March, 1964 memo stating, "the Bureau has re-photographed all of the material in possession of the Bureau and will send a complete set of these photographs to you by separate mail." Included among the hundreds of new FBI photographs were items #114 and #382. These two wallets were substituted for "Oswalds arrest wallet" and the "Tippit murder scene wallet."

There were also newly created FBI photographs of w-2 forms, each initialed by FBI lab technician Robert Frazier as well as the newly created photograph of the Minox light meter. These FBI photographs were received by the Dallas Police in March, 1964. To complete the charade, Hoover sent a new inventory list. Hoover explained, "The inventory list submitted by your office November 26, has been superseded by the list furnished to your office by the FBI Laboratory dated February 1, 1964. The list submitted by your office is incomplete and is not completely accurate." Hoover attempted to blame the Dallas Police and his own Dallas field office for producing an "incomplete and innaccurate" inventory. The list Hoover called incomplete and inaccurate is Warren Commission exhibit #2003.

"One final thought on the physical evidence. The w-2 forms, the Minox camera, and the wallets are a few examples of evidence alteration by the FBI. These items were allegedly found at Ruth Paine's. Nearly all of the questionable items of evidence, including the backyard photos, the Mexico City bus ticket, the Imperial Reflex camera, the two Klein Sporting Goods coupons, the Minox camera and other questionable "items of evidence" came from the Paines'. If we had known in 1964 that over half of the original Dallas Police film disappeared while at FBI headquarters, and that Dallas Police film had been altered while in possession of the FBI, and that original items of evidence were altered, then we would have demanded to know why the FBI was tampering with evidence. If we had known Oswald owned a Minox spy camera, and if we had known the police found two wallets in Oak Cliff with Oswald and Hidell identification, then we would have asked a lot more questions about the identity of Oswald."

* * *

"Next, I would like to discuss witness testimony," Armstrong continued. "The FBl's first priority was 'to set out the evidence showing that Oswald is responsible for the shooting that killed the President.' On December 3rd, a UPI release stated 'an exhaustive FBI report now nearly ready for the White House will indicate that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone and unaided assassin of President Kennedy.' Hoover had leaked this information to United Press hoping 'to blunt the drive for an independent investigation of the assassination.' His efforts failed and the Warren Commission was created.

"As Warren Commission members were assembled, the FBl's number three official, William Sullivan, said 'Hoover did not like to see the Warren Commission come into existence. He showed marked interest in limiting the scope of it or circumventing the scope of it and taking any action that might result in neutralizing it.' Hoover was concerned the Warren Commission would take testimony from witnesses that conflicted with the FBl's already completed report naming Oswald as the lone assassin. Sullivan said, 'if there were documents that possibly Hoover didn't want to come to the light of the public, then those documents no longer exist, and the truth will never be known.' In that one sentence, Sullivan told us how the FBI handled the investiagtion: if they didn't want documents to come to the light of the public, then those documents would disappear."

* * *

Now, consider some of the FBI documents that were not available to the public in 1964.

* * *

After Oswald returned to Dallas on October 3rd, his alleged support of Castro and his interest in Cuba disappeared. The FBI and Warren Commission told us Oswald lived in Oak Cliff and spent the weekends with Marina at the Paine house in Irving. But the FBI had other reports:

These witnesses reported their contacts with Oswald to the FBI. Most interviews were suppressed because they conflicted with Oswald working at the Book Depository or living in Oak Cliff.

* * *

"While Oswald worked at the Book Depository, from October 15 through November 22nd, without missing a day of work, someone was setting him up," Armstrong said. Some of his examples:

"A rifle with a scope, ammunition, target practice, a tall building from which to shoot the President, and soon enough cash to buy a new car. Someone was setting up Oswald.

"The FBI and Warren Commission told us that Oswald continued to work at the Book Depository in the day, preceeding the assassination" Armstrong continued. "But they didn't explain:

Consider this: at 1:15 pm the Dallas Police did not yet have a suspect in the President's murder. Leaving a wallet, with Oswald and Hidell identification at the scene of the Tippit murder, guaranteed the police would search for Lee Harvey Oswald. If they had not found Oswald at the Texas Theater, the police would have soon learned that Oswald had left the Book Depository. Book Depository records showed Oswald's address as 2515 W. 5th in Irving. A search of that address, Ruth Paine's house, would produce order blanks from Kleins Sporting Goods. Kleins records would show a rifle ordered by Alik Hidell of Dallas. Hidell was the second set of identification found in the wallet at the Tippit murder scene.

* * *

The FBI interviewed many people who placed Oswald in different places at the same time. Nearly all of these interviews were suppressed. Dallas Police Lt. Jack Revill told fellow officers that the FBI was suppressing a lot of evidence; FBI officials commented on how unusual the investigation was because no agent was allowed to pursue any kind of a lead to its logical conclusion. But when Ruby shot Oswald, it became easier to convince the public that Oswald was the lone assassin. Their efforts, however, were not without problems.

Problems developed when reports of Oswald's driving surfaced in the media. Many people knew Oswald could drive, but if Oswald's driving was confirmed questions would be raised: did he drive to Mexico, did he drive in south Texas, did he drive to Robert McKeown's near Houston, did he and Marina drive to the Furniture Mart, did he drive Ruth Paine's car to Shasteens Barber Shop and Hutchinsons grocery, did he drive the Comet at the Lincoln Mercury dealership? If Oswald drove to all these places, then he must have had a driver's license.

Did Oswald drive Jack Ruby's car? Perhaps Oswald and Ruby did know each other. But how could Oswald and Ruby have been together in the summer of 1963, when Oswald was in New Orleans? If Oswald had a Texas drivers license, what information could be found in his file in Austin?

All of these questions could be avoided if the public could be convinced Oswald did not drive. The convincing testimony came from Robert Oswald, Ruth and Michael Paine, and, most notably, Marina. Not only did Marina insist that Oswald could not drive, she denied every situation that involved Oswald driving a car in Irving when he was supposed to have been working at the Book Depository. Marina had no choice ... she could either deny Oswald drove, or she could explain whose car she was riding in and who was driving her around Irving while Harvey Oswald was working at the Book Depository.

When Department of Public Safety employees tell you they saw and handled Oswald's drivers license, it's hard to argue with them. It's hard to argue with their supervisor, who said she knew from direct personal experience that Oswald had a drivers license and that his license and file were pulled at the request of a government agency the week following the assassination.

For readers interested in learning whether or not Marina was with Lee Oswald when he was driving, I urge you to read the Warren Commission testimonies of Cliff Shasteen, Edith Whitworth, Gurtrude Hunter, and other people who were in Irving in 1963 and saw Oswald drive. Decide for yourself whether to believe employees and supervisors of the Texas Department of Public Safety and a couple dozen witnesses ... or Marina.

Most researchers have heard of Marina's questionable testimony, but few bother to check details or understand the extent of her contradictions. Warren Commission attornies recognized the problem and studied her testimony. A little known report stated "Marina's testimony is so full of confusion and contradiction that without cross-examination it reads like a nightmare". Warren Commission Attorney Bert Griffin called her a liar. The HSCA compared her Warren Commission, FBI and HSCA testimony. Their 29 page report listed dozens of unexplained contradictions. They questioned where and when Marina learned to speak English. She spoke English with US defector Robert Webster in Leningrad, shortly before she moved to Minsk and met Oswald, another US defector. Her English handwriting, written on the back of these photographs prior to November, 1963, is very good. Marina's cooperation with the government and her ability to supply evidence at the most opportune times has been noticable and quite obvious. Questions among CIA analyists prompted a series of investigations into her background. I urge you to read them and their conclusions.

An example of Marina's questionable integrity and unexplained intentions surfaced recently. Jeremy Gunn, of the Records Review Board, called Marina and requested the release of Oswalds tax returns. Marina replied "I have no problem releasing tax records and I will agree to have them released to journalists who will publish them". Journalists? Is she kidding? How can we possibly determine the legitamacy of records of questionable origin casually submitted to journalists? Records Review Board Chairman John Tunheim and Marina were together on the Oprah Winfrey show. When Judge Tunheim asked Marina to release Oswald's tax returns, Marina said they were not important and changed the subject.

What Tunheim and most researchers didn't know was that Marina had already released the returns 20 years ago to the HSCA. But she didn't tell anyone, including Tunheim. Why? What was she hiding? Was she afraid the Review Board would get verifiable tax returns from the HSCA files?

In 1964 Marina applied for Social Security benefits. The Social Security administration listed Oswald's lifetime earnings as $3306.85. This amount, to the penny, are Oswald's 1962 and 1963 earnings. Carol Hewett, an attorney specializing in Social Security claims, advised that Social Security death benefits are based upon lifetime earnings. Oswald's 1955-1959 wages, excluding military pay, represent 33% of his reported lifetime earnings. These earnings were not included in calculating his benefits. Why?

Researchers have tried, without success, to obtain Oswald's Social Security records. His 1962 and 1963 records are available, but nothing from the 1950's. In place of Oswald's 1955-1958 earnings records, the Social Security Administration sent the HSCA three pages from the Warren Commission report. The Social Security administration denied even the HSCA access to Oswald's 1950's employment records.

On December 16, 1963 FBI Agent Louis Kelley listed Oswald's income. But Kelley had incomplete records from which to reconstruct Oswald's income. In his report, Kelley wrote that Oswald's income from three New Orleans employers, Pfisterers, JR Michaels and TuJagues, is unknown. Why would Oswald's income be unknown when the FBI supposedly had these w-2 forms in its posession --- the ones that allegedly came from Ruth Paine's garage? The ones that didn't have the initials of Dallas Police Officers, were not listed on any Dallas Police inventory, and were cut out of the original 5 rolls of Dallas Police film? The reason Agent Kelley was not able to list Oswald's income from these companies was because these forms were not yet available to him. These 1955 and 1956 w-2 forms have IRS Federal Tax ID numbers that not issued until January, 1964. These fake forms were created a month after they were allegedly found at the Paine garage. They bear only the initials of FBI lab technician Robert Frazier and were photogaphed by the FBI in February, 1964. When made available, the FBI was then able to fabricate Oswald's income and the years of his employment during the 1950's. The purpose of altering these w-2 forms and suppressing the 1950's social security records is simple. Palmer McBride, his co-workers and company owners said Oswald worked at the Pfisterer Dental Lab in New Orleans in 1958. The Warren Commission said Oswald was in Japan at this time in the Marines. To avoid explaining how Oswald could be in two places at once, his social security records were suppressed, and 1956 w-2 forms were created to give the appearance Oswald worked at Pfisterers before he entered the Marines. If you want to know where one of the Oswalds was in 1958 ask the people who should know --- Palmer McBride, who was with him every day for 9 months; his friend William Wullf; or current Pfisterer President Linda Faircloth.

I have shown you how the FBI manipulated evidence, suppressed and changed witness testimony, and how Marina's chamelon-like testimony is, in the words of the Warren Commission "so full of confusion and contradiction it reads like a nightmare." But almost nothing in this article has anything to do with the murder of President Kennedy. The Minox camera, w-2 forms, multiple wallets, drivers license, tax returns, Stripling Junior High records --- these have nothing to do with the the murder of the President. But they have everything to do with the identity of Oswald ...because if Oswald's dual identity was discovered, it would link the ingelligence agencies --- those who create dual identities --- directly with the assassination.

In 1961 the CIA obtained photos of Oswald, the defector, in Minsk from tourists. But was he a defector? CIA employee Donald Deneslya read reports of a CIA agent who had worked at a radio factory in Minsk and returned to the US with a Russian wife and child.

As researchers began to uncover indications of CIA involvement in the assassination, the CIA sent out a memo offering suggestions to media assets on how to block and impede investigation of the Kennedy assassination by researchers.

Despite media assaults on critics, and despite diehard Warren Commission supporters, we continue to gather information in bits and pieces. We piece together documents like we would piece together a broken vase. One piece of a broken vase does not make a vase. Neither does a second or third peice. But at some point, when enough pieces are put together, you recognize the assembled pieces as a "vase". As more and more pieces of the Kennedy assassination are pieced together we are able to recognize the undeniable involvement of our intelligence agencies while the well worn picture of Oswald "the lone assassin" fades.

Supporters of the Warren Commission cast their vote in 1964. As more and more information becomes available, the Warren Report is being exposed for the fraud that it is. For those people who cannot or do not want to accept that the Warren Commissions version of "Lee Harvey Oswald" was in realty two different people I would like you to consider this:

Proving the existance of two Oswalds is not subject to the rules of criminal procedure whereby all 12 jurors must agree. Proving the existance of two Oswalds is not subject to the rules of civil procedure whereby only the majority of jurors must agree. In reality, proving the existance of two Oswalds requires only one instance of Oswald being in two places at the same time --- only one. If a single witness of the dozens who are on the record is correct, then the existence of two Oswalds --- Harvey and Lee --- is undeniable. We must then look to the agency who created them for the answers to President Kennedy's murder.

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