Vince Palamara Archive on JFK Place
The Mystery of JFK's Motorcycle Escort (and related matters)
(compiled by Vince Palamara)
"The Secret Service men were not pleased because they were in a
"hot" city and would have preferred to have two men ride the bumper of the
President's car with two motorcycle policemen between him (JFK)..."
["The Day Kennedy Was Shot" by Jim Bishop, p. 134 (1992 edition)]
I. DPD motorcycle officer Marrion L. Baker---
A. To the Warren Commission:
[from 3 H 244; bracketed comments by VP]
At this particular day in the office up there before we went out, I
was, my partner and I, we received instructions to ride right beside
the President's car.
About when was this that you received these instructions?
Let's see, I believe we went to work early that day, somewhere around
And from whom did you receive your original instructions to ride by
the side of the President's car?
Our sergeant is the one who gave us the instructions. This is all
made up in the captain's office, I believe.
[so far, so good]
Chief Curry; our captain is Captain Lawrence.
Were these instructions ever changed?
Yes, sir. When we got to the airport, our sergeant instructed me
that there wouldn't be anybody riding beside the President's car.
[the change at Love Field]
Did he tell you why or why not?
No, sir. [important to remember: nothing about JFK or even who told
the unnamed sergeant to make this change] We had several occasions where
we were assigned there and we were moved by request.
On that day, you mean?
Well, that day and several other occasions when I have escorted them
["them" is probably hyperbole for President's Kennedy AND Johnson: see
"C" below. Baker only escorted JFK once: 11/22/63]
On that day when did you ride or where were you supposed to ride
after this assignment was changed?
They just--the sergeant told us just to fall in beyond it, I believe
he called it the press, behind the car.
Beyond the press?
Did he tell you this after the President's plane arrived at the
airport or was it before?
It seemed like it was after he arrived out there.
Had you already seen him get out of the plane?
About what time was it before the motorcade left that you were
advised of this, was it just before or 5 or 10 minutes before, or what?
It was 5 or 10 minutes before.
Then the motorcade left and you rode along on a motorcycle in the
B. To the HSCA:
[11 HSCA 528, 536-537, regarding Baker's 1/17/78 interview with the
staff of the HSCA (JFK document No. 014899)]
JFK did it---
"Baker...stated to the committee that it was at the President's request
that they made no effort to stay in close formation immediately to the
rear of the Presidential limousine...[Baker] asserted that the President
was responsible for [his] position near the press bus."
C. "No More Silence" by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 123:
The truth comes out---
"I think that morning we were already assigned locations when we arrived
at headquarters. They didn't want anyone around the Presidential car, so
they told us to follow in behind the news media. We didn't know whose in-
structions those were; it might have been from the Secret Service. I know
[Pres.] Johnson didn't want anyone around him, especially a motorcycle of-
D. 10/98 letter to Vince Palamara:
Palamara: "Are you aware of any orders not to have the motorcycles ride
right beside JFK's limousine?"
II. DPD motorcycle officer Billy Joe Martin----
A. To the Warren Commission:
[6 H 293; bracketed comments by VP]
Mr. Ball: Did you at any time come abreast of the President's car in the
Mr. Martin: No, sir.
Mr. Ball: Were you under certain instructions as to how far behind the car
you were to keep?
Mr. Martin: Yes, sir.
Mr. Ball: What were those instructions?
Mr. Martin: They [plural=3DSecret Service]instructed us that they didn't
want anyone riding past the President's car and that we were to
ride to the rear, to the rear of his car, about the rear bumper.
Mr. Ball: I think that's all, Officer. [?!]
B. "Murder From Within" by Fred Newcomb & Perry Adams (1974), p.33:
Martin "said that at morning muster the four [Presidential motorcycle of-
ficers] were ordered that under no circumstances were they to leave their
positions "regardless of what happened.""
C. To the HSCA:
[11 HSCA 528, 536, regarding Martin's 1/17/78 interview with the HSCA staff,
done on the same day as Baker's, above (JFK document no. 014372)]
JFK did it---
"...Martin stated to the committee that it was at the President's request
that they made no effort to stay in close formation immediately to the
rear of the Presidential limousine...Martin confirms the Presidential
objection to the close positioning of motorcycles."
D. From Martin's alleged paramour, Jean Hill:
["JFK: The Last Dissenting Witness" (1992), pp. 112-114]
Hill, quoting Martin: "...they told us out at Love Field right after
Kennedy's plane landed...Well, while Kennedy was busy shaking hands with
all the wellwishers at the airport, Johnson's Secret Service people came
over to the motorcycle cops and gave us a bunch of instructions...They also
ordered us into the damdest escort formation I've ever seen. Ordinarily,
you bracket the car with four motorcycles, one on each fender. But this
time, they told the four of us [Martin, Hargis, Chaney, & Jackson] assigned
to the President's car there'd be no forward escorts. We were to stay
well to the back and not let ourselves get ahead of the car's rear wheels
under any circumstances. I'd never heard of a formation like that, much
less ridden in one, but they said they wanted to let the crowds have an
unrestricted view of the president. Well, I guess somebody got an 'un-
restricted view' of him, all right."
III. DPD motorcycle officer H.B. McLain---
A. "No More Silence" by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 162:
"The escort route had been picked out for him [JFK] by the Tactical Group.
Normally we had done our own scheduling, but they took it upon them-
sellves this time. It was rather unusual because they had people working in
positions they didn't normally work. We usually rode side by side with the
senior man riding on the left and the junior man on the right. In this
case, they had it reversed."
IV. DPD motorycle officer James W. Courson---
A. "No More Silence" by Larry Sneed (1998), p. 127:
"We were given our assignments that morning through our sergeant [unnamed]
which had been coordinated between the Secret Service and the police depart-
V. DPD motorcycle officer Bobby Joe Dale---
A. "No More Silence" by Larry Sneed (1998), pp. 132-133:
"Two or three days prior to the President's visit we'd ridden with the
Secret Service checking to see where the turns and problem areas might be.
We had three possible routes, but we didn't know which one we were going
to take, and we were not briefed on it. But by riding during the week, I
kept hearing the phrase "escape routes," which dawned on me later that
should something happen to any part of the motorcade we had an escape route
to either Baylor or Parkland Hospitals...Once we were assembled and the
President was ready to go, we started the motorcade by going out a gate at
the far end. At that time, we didn't know which route we were taking; we
had three: right, straight, or left. As we were leaving, the word came
over the radio that we would use the particular route that went left."
B. Corroboration for Dale:
[HSCA RIF# 180-10109-10411: WC document, Griffin to Rankin, 4/2/64]
"From an administrative standpoint, (DPD's Charles) Batchelor** believed
that the failure of the Secret Service to inform the police adequately
in advance of the exact route to be taken by the president prevented them
from adequately organizing their men and taking the necessary security
VI. DPD Sergeant Samuel Q. Bellah---
"Fairfield (TX) Recorder", 11/17/88: based off interview with Bellah
(photo inc.) [provided to the author by Bellah]---"On the night before his
assignment, Bellah reviewed the planned route with his captain. The route
was not the original that was to go straight through Dealey Plaza,but a
revised route. The original plan would have skirted the Texas Book Depos-
itory building by a block, but the altered plan turned to pass directly in
front of the building."
VII. DPD motorcycle office Clyde A. Haygood---
[11 HSCA 528-529; see also 6 H 297]
"Clyde A. Haygood...[was] assigned to the right rear of the Presidential
limousine. The activity of [Haygood] indicated again a departure from stand-
ard maximum security protection. Haygood, for example, admitted that al-
though he was stationed to the right rear of Kennedy's car, he was general-
ly riding several cars back and offred no explanation for this. Haygood
was on Main Street at the time of the shooting...Haygood and Baker were
too far from the Presidential limouisne to afford Kennedy any protection."
VIII. DPD motorcycle officer (Sergeant) Stavis Ellis---
A. "No More Silence" by Larry Sneed (1998), pp. 143-144:
"I was in charge of the actual escort of the President's car. All the
other officers had their assignments, but some were just assigned to us as
surplus. At the airport, Chief Curry told me, "Look, you see that double-
deck bus up there [one of the Press Busses]? That's full of news media. Now
they've got to get to the Mart out there where the President is going to
talk, but we don't want them messing up this motorcade. Just give them
one of your men back there and tell him to escort them there on time but
to keep them out of the motorcade and not to mess with us." So I got M.L.
Baker*and told him exactly what the chief had told me. That put him be-
hind us quite a bit."
IX. DPD Captain Perdue W. Lawrence---
A. To the Warren Commission:
[7 H 580-581; bracketed coments by VP]
Mr. Griffin: At the time of your first meeting with Chief Batchelor were
you given any special instructions about the protection of the President?
Captain Lawrence:. None.
Mr. Griffin: When was the next time you received some instructions from
one of your superiors?
Captain Lawrence: The next time was, to the best of my knowledge, the
motorcade assignments--possibly 2 days before the President arrived---I
asked how we would escort this motorcade.
Mr. Griffin: And with whom did you discuss that?
Captain Lawrence: Chief Lunday and Chief Batchelor.
Mr. Griffin: Was anybody from the Secret Service present at that time?
Captain Lawrence: Not at that time no.
[important to keep in mind]
Mr. Griffin: What were you told about the purpose of the officers that
were being provided, if anything?
Captain Lawrence: I was told that there would be these lead motorcycle of
ficers, and that we would also have these other officers alongside [not
to the rear of ]the President's car and the Vice President's car, and some
of the others that would be in the motorcade, and approximately how many
officers would be needed for the escort, and at that time I had prepared
a list of 18 solo motorcycle officers, this included three solo sergeants.
I was also instructed that about this motorcade--that when it reach-
ed Stemmons Expressway, Chief Batchelor told me that he wanted a solo
motorcycle officer in each traffic lane, each of the five traffic lanes
waiting for the motorcade, so th= at no vehicles, on Stemmons Expressway
would pass the motorcade at all and he wanted these solo motorcycle officers
to pull away from the escort and get up there on Stemmons Freeway and block
the traffic, and some of these officers, he stated, would pull past the
Presidential car. [...]
Mr. Griffin: When did that conversation take place?
Captain Lawrence: That conversation took place about the 20th of November
---2 days before.
Mr. Griffin: Now, did you receive another set of instructions or orders
Captain LAWRENCE. Yes; on the evening of November 21, this was the first
time that I had attended any security meeting at all in regards to this
motorcade. At approximately 5 p.m. I was told to report to the conference
room on the third floor, and when I arrived at the conference room the
deputy chiefs were in there, there were members of the Secret Service --
Mr. Sorrels, Captain Gannaway, Captain Souter of radio patrol, and Capt.
Glen King, deputy chiefs, assistant chiefs, and Chief Curry, and one
gentleman, who I assume was in charge of the security for the Secret
Service. This was the first time I had attended any conferences in regard
to the security of this escort, and I listened in on most of the discussion
and I heard one of the Secret Service men say that President Kennedy
did not desire any motorcycle officer directly on each side of him,
between him and the crowd, but he would want the officers to the rear.
This conversation I overheard as Chief Batchelor was using a blackboard
showing how he planned to handle this--how plans had been made to cover the
Mr. Griffin: Was there ever any discussion that you heard about taking
preecautions designed to prevent some sort of assault on the President
that would be more severe than simply placards, picketing, and people
throwing rotten eggs and vegetables, and things like that?
Captain Lawrence:. Not to my knowledge, other than the fact that the Secret
Service man in there--when it was mentioned about these motorcycle
officers along side the Presidents car, he said, "No, these officers
should be back and if any people started a rush toward the car, if
there was any movement at all where the President was endangered in any way,
these officers would be in a position to gun their motors and get
between them and the Presidential car,"
and he mentioned, of course, the security and safety of the President and
those words were mentioned.
Mr. Griffin:. Let's go back a little bit and let me ask you--when did you
first give instructions to the men who were actually stationed along the
route as to what they should do?
Captain Lawrence: I gave them those instructions on the morning of November
22 and I had with me at the time--I had the detail with me and some notes
that I had written...
X. Asst. Chief of DPD Charles Batchelor**, Deputy Chief George L. Lumpkin,
& Deputy Chief M.W. Stevenson---
A. 11/30/63 report to Chief Curry:
[21 H 571]
"[DPD Captain Perdue] Lawrence then said there would be four (4) motorcycles
on either side of the motorcade immediately to the rear of the President's
vehicle [as borne out by his 11/21/63 report***]. MR. LAWSON [OF THE
SECRET SERVICE] STATED THAT THIS WAS TOO MANY, that HE [Lawson] thought
two (2) motorcycles on either side would be sufficient, about even with
the rear fender of the President's car." [emphasis added]
B. ***DPD Captain Perdue Lawrence Exhibit re: motorcycle distribution
DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1963, the day before the assassination [handwritten
comments from 7/24/64; 20 H 489; same as HSCA JFK Exhibit F-679]:
In addition to DPD motorcycles officers B.W. Hargis and B.J. Martin, H.B.
MCLAIN AND J.W. COURSON WERE SLATED TO RIDE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF JFK'S
LIMOUSINE. Also, in addition to DPD motorcycle officers D.L.Jackson and
J.M. Chaney, C.A. HAYGOOD AND M.L. BAKER WERE SLATED TO RIDE ON THE RIGHT
SIDE OF JFK'S LIMOUSINE!
XI. DPD Chief Jesse Curry---
A. To the Warren Commission:
[4 H 171; bracketed comments by VP]
(included in the actual transcript is a bizarre error involving a seeming-
ly deliberate edit)
Mr. Curry. In the planning of this motorcade, we had had more
motorcycles lined up to be with the President's car, but the Secret
Service didn't want that many.
Did they tell you why?
We actually had two on each side but we wanted four on each side and
they asked us to drop out some of them and back down the motorcade, along
the motorcade, which we did. [this does not answer the question and is
repeated verbatim below]
How many motorcycles did you have?
I think we had four on each side of him.
How many did you want to have?
[Here it is, repeated. Notice that even this does not answer this particular
We actually had two on each side side but we wanted four on each side
and they asked us to drop out some of them and back down the motorcade, along
the motorcade, which we did.
So that you in fact only had two on each side of his car?
Two on each side and they asked them to remain at the rear fender so if
the crowd moved in on him they could move in to protect him from the crowd.
Who asked him to stay at the rear fender?
I believe Mr. Lawson.
The Secret Service man?
XII. Secret Service Agent Winston G. Lawson---
A. To the Warren Commission:
[4 H 338; bracketed comments by VP]
DULLES: "...do you recall that any orders were given by or on
behalf of the President with regard to the location of those
motorcycles that were particularly attached to his car?'
LAWSON: "NOT SPECIFICALLY AT THIS INSTANCE ORDERS FROM HIM."
[emphasis added---Lawson would go on to say "it was my under-
standing that he did not like a lot of motorcycles surrounding
the car"something not borne out by very recent prior motorcades
HSCA Volume 11, page 529:
"The Secret Service's alteration of the original Dallas Police Department
motorcycle deployment plan prevented the use of maximum possible
security precautions...Surprisingly, the security measure used in the
prior motorcades during the same Texas visit (11/21/63) shows that the
deployment of motorcycles in Dallas by the Secret Service may have been
uniquely insecure...The Secret Service knew more than a day before
November 22 that the President did not want motorcycles riding alongside
or parallel to the Presidential vehicle..."
Yet at least 6 motorcycles surrounded JFK's limousine (inc. 1-2 directly
beside him) on 3/23/63 in Chicago1, on the European tour of June-July
1963 (encompassing Germany, Italy, & Ireland)2, the 11/18/63 Florida trip3,
and, most importanly, in San Antonio on 11/21/634, Houston on 11/21/635,
and Fort Worth on the morning of 11/22/63.6
[see addendum, below, for more on Lawson and the motorcycle issue]
DMN reporter Tom Dillard---"We lost our position at the airport. I
understood we were to have been quite a bit closer. We were assigned as
the prime photographic car which, as you probably know, NORMALLY A TRUCK
PRECEDES THE PRESIDENT ON THESE THINGS [MOTORCADES] AND CERTAIN
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PRESS RIDE WITH THE TRUCK. In this
case, as you know, we didn't have any and this car that I was in was to
take photographs which was of spot-news nature." [Emphasis added]. 7Dillard
forcefully said the same thing on C-Span on 11/20/93,telling the TV audience
that the flatbed truck was "canceled at the last minute" and they were
put in Chevrolet convertibles "which totally put us out of the picture."
[all previous trips, inc. Florida, has press/photographers very close in
front and behind JFK's limousine, inc. WH photographer Cecil Stoughton,
who rode in the SS follow-up car from July 1963 until 11/21/638]
Henry Burroughs, AP photographer (rode in Camera Car #2)---"I was a member
of the White House pool aboard Air Force One when we arrived with JFK in
Dallas on that fateful day. We, the pool, were dismayed to find our pool
car shoved back to about #11 position in the motorcade. We protested, but
it was too late.
From Jim Bishop's "The Day Kennedy Was Shot" (1992 edition):
p. 133 "The ninth car was a Chevrolet convertible for White House motion
picture photographers. It was impossible to take pictures in a position so
remote from the President. Behind it were two more automobiles with photo-
pp. 133-134 " The press was displeased with its place in the parade. Some
felt they could have reported a better story watching the motorcade from
any of the buildings downtown. Even their wire representatives- AP, UPI,
and American Broadcasting- sitting forward in a special car, were six hun-
dred feet behind the Kennedys and could see little except the Mayor of
Dallas directly ahead."
pp. 109-110;134 "Dr. George Burkley...felt that he should be close to the
President at all times... Dr. Burkley was unhappy...this time the admiral
protested. He could be of no assistance to the President if a doctor was
Seth Kantor's notes----"Will Fritz's men called off nite before by SS. Had
planned to ride closed car w/ machine guns in car behind Pres." [which
could mean someplace behind JFK's car, as was the case in Chicago, IL, on
3/23/6310 & New York on 11/15/63] 11
Milton Wright, Texas Highway Patrolman (driver of Mayor Cabell's car)---
"As I recall, prior to the President arriving at the airport we were al-
ready staged on the tarmac. I do not recall what position I was in at that
time but it was not #1[the number taped to his car's windshield]. At the
last minute there was a lot of shuffling and I ended up in the 5th vehicle.
My vehicle was the last to leave downtown after the shooting because the
police set up a road block behind my car."12
General Godfrey McHugh (rode in VIP car)--- was asked to sit in a car far
ther back in the motorcade, rather than "normally, what I would do between
the driver and Secret Service agent in charge of trip"13- he admitted
this was "unusual";14"Ordinarily McHugh rode in the Presidential limou-
sine in the front seat. This was the first time he was instructed not to
ride in the car so that all attention would be focused on the
President to accentuate full exposure."15
And, as regards the Dallas Police, in keeping with all prior motorcades in
1963, DPD Captain Glen King stated that the Secret Service was primarily
responsible for the Presiden t's security, while the role of the DPD was
a supportive one.16
ASAIC Roy Kellerman, to FBI agents' Sibert & O'Neil on the night of the
"the advanced security arrangements made for this specific trip were the
most stringent and thorough ever employed by the Secret Service for the
visit of a President to an American city" [[FBI RIF#124-10012-10239;
Kellerman would go on to deny ever saying such a thing: 18 H 707-708]
JFK, to San Antonio Congressman Henry Gonzalez on 11/21/63:
"The Secret Service told me that they had taken care of everything -
there's nothing to worry about." ["High Treason", page 127]
President Kennedy, to a concerned advance man, Marty Underwood on
11/21/63: "Marty, You worry about me too much" [Evening Magazine" video
11/22/88; interview with Marty Underwood 10/9/92]
DPD Chief Curry, "Dallas Morning News", 10/26/63 [22 H 626]:
"LARGE POLICE GUARD PLANNED FOR KENNEDY-Signs Friday pointed to the
greatest concentration of Dallas police ever for the protection of a
high-ranking dignitary when President Kennedy visits Dallas next month...
The deployment of the special force, he said, is yet to be worked
out with the U.S. Secret Service."
3 Stoughton photos, JFK Library
4 RIF#154-10002-10424: Secret Service Final Survey Report. Also utilized:
a police helicopter along the motorcade route and 40 members of the Milit-
ary Police from Ft. Sam
5 NBC video from 11/22/63 (depicting newsreel from previous day); still
photo, "Houston Chronicle";11 HSCA 529 & 537; Secret Service Final Survey
Report (JFK document No. 014979)---stated that in all motorcade movements
"six motorcycles flanked the Presidential limousine and an additional 33
motorcycles were used to flank the motorcade and cover the intersections"
6 "Texas News" newsreel; Stoughton photo, JFK Library (interestingly, the
re is no mention in the Fort Worth Secret Service Survey Report about the
deployment of motorcycles in the vicinity of the Presidential limousine.
Thankfully, we have the photographic record [11 HSCA 529 & 537]).
7 6 H 163
8 "The Memories, 1961-1963" by Cecil Stoughton w/ Ted Clifton and Hugh
Sidey (1973), p. 160; see also Stoughton's motorcade films of the trip to
Italy (7/63), as well as his still photos from the follow-up car in Tampa,
FL (11/18/63) and in Houston, TX (11/21/63) via the JFK Library (shown by
the author at COPA 1996)
9 Burkley rode in the lead car in Miami on 11/18/63: RIF#154-10002-10422
11 20 H 391; see also 4 H 171-172 (Curry); 11 HSCA 530
12 9/3/98 e-mail to the author
13 For example, McHugh rode here in Tampa on 11/18/63: RIF#154-10002-10423
14 CFTR radio (Canada) interview 1976
15 5/11/78 interview with the HSCA's Mark Flanagan (RIF#180-10078-10465
[see also 7 HSCA 14])
16 20 H 453, 463-465; see also Curry, p. 9
[from John Kelin's "Fair Play": review of the author's Lancer 11/22/97 con-
ference appearance re: agent being recalled at Love Field]
"This is different angles of [the Kennedy motorcade] leaving Love Field,"
Palamara said, as the video rolled. Using a red "laser light" pointer,
he identified various agents, and supplied narration:
"This is John Ready ... Paul Landis ... here they are,
leaving Love Field ... Henry Rybka --- thinking that
he's going to be doing what he just did the last few
stops --- this is when Emory Roberts rises in his seat
in the followup car ... and we see some hand gestures
.. basically tells [Rybka] to cease and desist from
his actions. Paul Landis is even making room for him on
the followup car! And this is when you'll see Henry
Rybka ... I think a picture says a thousand words, well
this is about as close as you can get here ---" And as
the next image flickered on the screen in slow motion,
the Lancer audience rumbled in astonishment --- the
words "Wow!" and "Jesus!" leap out from my tape
recorder. For as Henry Rybka is seen being summoned
from his usual position back to the followup car, he
issues a confused palms-up gesture that seems to say,
Rybka was left behind at Love Field. "And the most
amazing thing of all," Palamara continued, "is the fact
that there is not one report, not two reports, but
three reports after the fact, placing Rybka in the
followup car! But he wasn't there! Again --- either
they assumed he did hop into the car, or there was a
coverup. Take your pick..."
The clip of Rybka's confusion rolled again; I think everyone needed to
see it at least twice. "When you see this clip normally, it's normally
real time, it goes by real quick..."
From Peter Dale Scott's excellent "Deep Politics and the Death of JFK",
"Another army reserve officer in Dealey Plaza may have been Winston
Lawson, the White House Secret Service agent responsible for the choice
of the Kennedy motorcade route (4 WH 318). Lawson's first three reports of
what happened on and before November 22 raise considerable questions
about his performance. For example he reported that motorcycles were used
on "the right and left flanks of the President's car" (17 WH 605; cf. 17
WH 624, WH 741) although photographs show that they accompanied at the
rear (21 WW768-70). Numerous later reports from the Dallas police agreed
that at Lawson's own instructions the proposed side escorts were
redeployed to the rear of the car (7 WH 581, 3 WH 244, 18 WH 809, 21 WH
571). This change,ostensibly for the sake of security, would appear to
leave the President more open to a possible crossfire.
Lawson also noted that "the motorcycles cleared a path to the Parkland
Hospital" (17 WH 629), and later that his own car (the lead car, between
Lumpkin's and the President's) "assisited the motorcycles in escorting the
President's vehicle to Parkland Hospital" (17 WH 632; cf. 21 WH 580). These
claims are inconsistent with the radio orders on police channels to clear
a route to Parkland (and block off the side streets), which had been issued,
not for the President's car, but for the ambulance summoned by the
psuedo-emergency of the so-called "epileptic seizure" (23 WH 841; cf. 17
WH 368, 395).
Lawson's sworn testimony to the Warren Commission said nothing about
the motorcycles escort; and it painteda picture even harder to reconcile with
the orders for a route to be cleared" "We had to do some stopping of cars
and holding our hands out the windows and blowing the sirens and the horns
to get through" (4 WH 354). No one on the Commission asked about the orders
on the police radio transcript, by which other cars had already been blocked
from the route."