Dealey Plaza: A Scenario by Dave Reitzes At 12:00 noon on November 22, 1963, Texas School Book Depository worker Eddie Piper met Lee Harvey Oswald on the first floor of the Book Depository. Oswald told him he was on his way to eat lunch (1). Between 12:15 and 12:25 pm, Mrs. Carolyn Arnold, who worked at the Depository and knew Oswald, saw him near the first floor lunchroom. Mrs. Arnold was not called to testify before the Warren Commission (2). When asked by the Dallas Police where he was at 12:30 that day, Oswald told them he was eating his lunch in the first floor lunchroom (3). He accurately named a number of co-workers who'd passed through the room on their way to view the motorcade, which was due in Dealey Plaza at 12:20 or 12:25 (4). The President was scheduled to arrive at the nearby Trade Mart at 12:30 (5). The Men on the Sixth Floor At 12:15 pm, Arnold and Barbara Rowland, two teenage newlyweds, were standing across the street from the Texas School Book Depository awaiting the motorcade. He was certain of the time because "12:15" was displayed on the large Hertz sign on top of the Book Depository. He nudged his wife and asked her if she wanted to see a Secret Service agent. He pointed to the westernmost (far left) window on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, where a dark-haired man in an open-necked, plain white shirt was staring at the street; the man was holding a rifle with a large telescopic sight. Barbara Rowland turned to look but was distracted; by the time she looked back the man was gone (6). The man with the rifle was standing at "port arms" or "parade rest," with the rifle held at a forty-five degree angle pointed downward across his body. He appeared "tall and slender in build in proportion with his width," maybe 140 or 150 lbs. Rowland noted his somewhat dark complexion, and said he could have been either Caucasian or "light Latin," possibly in his thirties. He had dark hair, closely cut, and wore a very light-colored shirt with an open collar, and a white T-shirt underneath. He stood a short distance back from the window. The rifle appeared to be a "fairly high-powered rifle," possibly a ".30 size six rifle" (7). Rowland noted that the man seemed to have a partner, an elderly black man who was standing in the easternmost (far right) window (the alleged "Oswald" window); the second man did not have a rifle. At one point he noticed the men "walking back and forth." Later Arnold Rowland would be shown photographs of Lee Harvey Oswald; he wouldn't be able to identify him as either one of the men he saw (8). The Warren Commission was quite surprised at Rowland's revelation of two men on the sixth floor, as his FBI report mentioned only the first man; and the Commission apparently didn't care for surprises. Rowland insisted that he'd told the interviewing agents about the second man, and they'd told him, in effect, to forget it (9). The Commission went to great lengths to discredit the witness, even calling his wife to testify, so she could answer questions about whether her husband ever exaggerated his grades or accomplishments (10). Some have speculated that Rowland might have seen Harold Norman and "Junior" Jarman, two black TSBD employees who were preparing to watch the motorcade from the easternmost fifth floor window. (They would be joined by a third black man, Bonnie Ray Williams, at about 12:20.) Carefully study of Rowland's testimony proves otherwise. In addition to the man in the west window with the rifle and the man in the east sixth floor window, Rowland also notes that when the shooting started, "at that time he noticed there were several people hanging out of windows" (11). A photograph taken by Tom Dillard (12) shows Norman and Jarman in the fifth floor window just after the shots were fired, and Bonnie Ray Williams was one window over to the west (left). These are undoubtedly the "several people hanging out of windows" Rowland noted, directly below the window with Rowland's second man (13). In his FBI report of November 22, 1963, Rowland specified that he was talking about the "window of the second floor from the top" (14). This is the sixth floor. The Warren Commission, in dismissing Rowland's statements, disregarded Deputy Sheriff Roger D. Craig's testimony that specifically affirmed Rowland's: "I talked to a young couple and the boy said he saw two men on the . . . sixth floor of the Book Depository building over there; one of them had a rifle with the [a] telescopic sight on it -- but he thought they were Secret Service agents on guard and didn't report it. This was about . . . he said, 15 minutes before the motorcade ever arrived" (15). Craig said he remembered the boy's name was Arnold Rowland, and that his wife had not seen either man, but her husband had tried to point the Secret Service agent out to her. Craig added that the Rowlands reported these sightings to him before he heard any announcements or broadcasts placing a gunman in the Book Depository (16). John Powell was an inmate on the sixth floor of the Dallas County Jail in Dealey Plaza, across the street to the southwest of the Book Depository, at 12:30 pm on November 22, 1963. He and a number of other sixth floor inmates watched two men in the southeast sixth floor TSBD window, one of whom fired a rifle at President Kennedy. Powell could see the men clearly enough to notice them "fooling with the scope" on the rifle; one had a darker complexion than the other. Until the shooting began, Powell was under the impression that the men were security guards. Powell's story was available to the Warren Commission, as was his statement that a number of other inmates could confirm it. Neither Powell nor anyone else from the Dallas County Jail was called to testify before the Warren Commission (17). In an FBI interview of December 5, 1963, Mrs. Ruby Henderson said that at the time of the motorcade, she was standing on the east side of Elm Street "just north of Houston Street." A man named Jerry Belknap had apparently had an epileptic seizure in front of the Book Depository building and was taken away by an ambulance; this occurred around 12:15 to 12:20. Immediately following this incident, Mrs. Henderson looked up at the Book Depository and noticed two men in one of the eastern windows on an upper floor. One of them had a dark complexion, and she guessed that he was either a Mexican or a black man; he was wearing a white shirt. The other man was taller and wore a darker shirt. She didn't notice anyone else in any windows (18). Mrs. Henderson was not called as a witness before the Warren Commission. Mrs. Carolyn Walther also told the FBI she saw two men on the sixth floor of the Book Depository immediately after the ambulance had left with the epileptic. She was standing on the east side of Houston Street about fifty or sixty feet south of Elm. A man with blond or light brown hair and a white shirt was holding a rifle, the barrel pointing downward. He was looking straight down at Houston Street. The man had light brown or blond hair and wore a white shirt. Mrs. Walther said the rifle had a short barrel, and she thought it may have been a machine gun. A second man wearing a brown suit coat could be seen in the same window, but his face was concealed by the window ledge. Just as she noticed these men, the first cars of the motorcade were rounding the corner of Main and Houston (19). Walther was not called as a witness by the Warren Commission. The photograph taken by Tom Dillard around fifteen seconds after the shooting captured the upper part of the Book Depository's south side. Photographic researcher Robert Groden has made a series of enlargements of a number of the building's windows in this picture. He has identified two men on the sixth floor. One can be indistinctly seen in the westernmost window (among the farthest windows from the camera); he appears to be a heavy-set white male with a receding hairline (20). At the right edge of the easternmost window, from which Oswald is supposed to have fled immediately following the shooting, we can make out the form of a man still in the so-called "sniper's nest." His face is not visible (21). Ronald B. Fischer and Robert E. Edwards were standing across the street from the Book Depository. About a minute before the shots, just as the first cars in the motorcade were rounding the corner of Main and Houston Streets, Edwards nudged Fischer and pointed out a man in the easternmost sixth floor window of the building. The man had brown hair, wore a light-colored shirt with an open neck, and possibly short sleeves (22). He was staring as if transfixed down Elm Street towards the slope known as the "grassy knoll" (23). The men remembered him because he was the only person in sight who seemed uneasy (24). When the shots began, neither man looked back at the window. Fischer thought the shots came from the west, in the area of the grassy knoll (25). Edwards had no idea where the shots came from (26). When shown a photograph of Oswald, Fischer said he could be the man he saw, but he wasn't sure (27). Edwards apparently was never asked. 15-year-old Amos Euins saw a man on the sixth floor of the Book Depository, in the easternmost window, where Oswald is alleged to have been. He saw the man fire the last shot, and saw him withdraw the rifle. The rifle had no telescopic sight. Immediately following the assassination, Euins told an FBI agent and then later a reporter, James Robert Underwood, that the gunman was a black man with a pronounced bald spot (28). Euins was standing with an unidentified policeman ("he was kind of an old policeman") when he heard another witness, a man wearing a construction worker's helmet, tell the officer he had "seen a man run out the back." The fleeing man "had some kind of bald spot on his head" (29). This second witness has never been identified, and the two officers who spoke with Euins after the assassination, Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer and Sergeant D. V. Harkness, were never questioned about it. Robert Hill Jackson was a photographer riding in the motorcade a few cars behind the President. He heard the shots, and looked up at the Book Depository roughly three seconds after the last shot. He saw a rifle being drawn slowly into the window; he couldn't see the person holding it (30). Howard Brennan was a construction worker sitting across from the Dallas County Records office, just around the corner of the Texas School Book Depository. As the shots were being fired, Brennan said he looked up and saw a man fitting Oswald's general description, wearing a light-colored shirt, taking aim for the final shot. At a police line-up he could not identify Oswald. Before the Warren Commission, he said the man was Oswald, and said he could have told the police that, but feared possible retribution against himself or his family (31). He caused the Commission a bit of heartache, as he was the only witness to place Lee Harvey Oswald in the southeast sixth floor window with a rifle. The Commission eventually decided that Brennan's identification of Oswald could not be relied upon as probative evidence. Wesley J. Liebeler would later say that the Warren Report's conclusion that it was Oswald at the window is supported by "the least direct evidence of all, because there isn't any eyewitness" (32). James Richard Worrell, Jr., a senior in high school who'd skipped class to see the President, was standing at the foot of the Book Depository when he heard the first shot. Looking directly up he saw a few inches of a rifle sticking out of the sixth floor window, and he saw the rifle fire. Panicking, he ran around the corner, then stopped to get his breath. About two minutes later he saw a white man, about 5'10", with dark hair, wearing a sports coat, run from the back door of the Book Depository and walk briskly south on Houston Street. He did not see the man's face (33). Richard Randolph Carr, a steelworker watching the motorcade from the seventh floor of the courthouse across the street from the Book Depository, saw a heavy-set man wearing a hat, a tan sport coat, and horn-rimmed glasses looking out of a window on an upper floor of the Book Depository. This is the same man Carolyn Walther saw wearing a brown sport jacket on the sixth floor of the TSBD. Soon after the assassination, Carr saw the man hurrying south from the Book Depository on Houston Street, then east on Commerce, where he got into a Nash Rambler station wagon with a luggage rack on top and Texas license plates, parked on the corner of Commerce and Record. A dark-complected man was waiting for him in the driver's seat of the Rambler. The man in the brown sports jacket got in the passenger side, and the Rambler headed north on Houston (34). The FBI interviewed Carr on January 4, 1964. The Warren Commission did not call him as a witness nor mention him in any of their published evidence. Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig was standing on the south side of Elm Street seeking out witnesses when he heard a sharp whistle from behind him. He turned to see a white male with dark hair wearing a light-colored, short-sleeved shirt, run down the incline from behind the Texas School Book Depository to Elm Street, where a light-colored Nash Rambler station wagon with a luggage rack on top, driven by a dark-complected man wearing a white windbreaker-type jacket, had pulled up. Deputy Sheriff Craig would later identify the man running toward the station wagon as Lee Harvey Oswald. As this man was the only person who seemed to be in a hurry to leave the scene, Craig tried to cross the street and hold him, but traffic was too heavy. The man got into the station wagon, which then sped off through the triple underpass in the direction of Oak Cliff. Roger Craig testified before the Warren Commission. When later shown a copy of his transcript, he noted fourteen instances where he believed he'd been misquoted. None of his corrections were made, and unlike other witnesses who signed affidavits noting corrections, Craig's affidavit was not published in the Warren Commission Hearings volumes. One of the changes he noted was the alteration of his description of a Nash Rambler to simply a "station wagon" (35). Mrs. Helen Forrest was standing among a group of people on the incline between the TSBD and the area known as the grassy knoll. She saw a man run down the incline from the rear of the Book Depository and enter a Nash Rambler station wagon. She later told historian Michael L. Kurtz, "If it wasn't Oswald, it was his identical twin" (36). Another witness, James Pennington, saw the exact same thing (37). Due to the mysterious circumstances perceived to surround the deaths of a number of witnesses, Pennington told his story only with great reluctance (38). Marvin C. Robinson had been driving south on Houston at about 12:30 pm, and had to wait for several minutes at Houston and Elm until the motorcade had passed. An employee of his at the Garland, Texas, Ling Temco Vought (LTV) plant, Roy Cooper, was following him in his own car to Robinson's home in Oak Cliff. Robinson had just made a right turn and was driving his Cadillac west on Elm Street when a light-colored Nash Rambler station wagon pulled out in front of him and abruptly stopped in front of the Texas School Book Depository; Robinson had to slam on his brakes to avoid hitting it. A young man came down the grassy incline and got into the vehicle, which sped away under the triple underpass in the direction of Oak Cliff. Robinson was interviewed by the FBI on November 23, 1963. He said he would be unable to identify the man he saw. He was not called to testify before the Warren Commission, is not mentioned in the Warren Report, and his statement was not published in the Warren Commission Hearings volumes (39). Roy Cooper of Euless, Texas, had just turned right on Elm Street and was driving west directly behind the Cadillac belonging to his supervisor, Marvin Robinson's. He saw a light-colored Nash Rambler station wagon which "pulled our real fast in front of the Cadillac driven by his boss, and his employer had to stop abruptly and nearly hit this Nash Rambler." He observed a white man between the ages of 20 and 30 come down the grassy incline, wave at the station wagon, then get in when it pulled up. He was interviewed by the Dallas FBI on November 23, 1963. "Cooper could not see who was driving the Nash Rambler and could not furnish any further description of the man who jumped in the car. They drove off at a rather fast rate of speed and went down toward the overpass toward Oak Cliff. . . . He believed that Robinson could give further information about the Rambler station wagon, also the driver and the rider" (40). Roy Cooper was not called as a witness by the Warren Commission or the House Select Committee on Assassinations; his FBI report was classified until at least 1992. It was discovered at the National Archives II building in College Park, Maryland by researcher Chris Courtwright in 1996 (41). A photograph taken by Jim Murray from south of Elm Street shows a man in a light-colored button or zip-up shirt or jacket headed toward a Nash Rambler station wagon with a luggage rack in front of the Texas School Book Depository. Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig, also in the photo, is pictured looking at either the man or the station wagon. The Hertz sign on top of the Book Depository shows the time as 12:40 pm. When the photo is greatly enlarged, the man appears to be young, quite thin, and has very short, dark hair. The enlargement is far too indistinct to allow any firm conclusions as to how closely the man resembles Lee Harvey Oswald (42). Oswald's Alibi At 12:30 pm, while shots were being fired at the motorcade, Oswald was finishing his lunch on the first floor, in a lunch room located at the northwest corner of the building; which is the rear left viewed from Elm Street. Oswald stepped into the stairway and walked up one flight to the second floor recreation room, where he purchased a Coke from a vending machine. He had just turned to walk farther into the room when a police officer burst into the room and called out to him (43). Officer Marrion L. Baker was riding one of the motorcade's escort motorcycles that day. He had just rounded the corner of Main Street onto Houston and was facing the Book Depository. When the first shot rang out, his attention was captured by a flock of pigeons which suddenly departed en masse from the roof of the Depository. His immediate thought was that a gunman was on the roof of the building. He revved up his motorcycle, and within ten seconds had parked it in front of the Depository, and was running towards the rear entrance. As he entered the building he was joined by Roy S. Truly, the Depository superintendent. He asked Truly if there was an elevator to the roof. Truly quickly led him to the elevators, but they were both idle on an upper floor. They took off up the stairs with Truly leading the way (44). As he reached the third floor, Truly realized that Baker was no longer with him. He ran down a flight and found Baker with his gun drawn and pointed at the stomach of Lee Harvey Oswald, who was holding a bottle of Coke, and staring with little expression at Baker. "Does this man work here?" Baker asked. Truly confirmed that he did, and Baker turned and continued up the stairs with Truly behind him. Approximately one minute had passed since the shots were fired (45). The Warren Commission contended that in the time it took Truly and Baker to reach the second floor, Oswald had withdrawn his rifle from the sixth floor window; wiped it clean of all fingerprints, including the stock, barrel, trigger and trigger housing; squeezed out from behind the shield of cartons he'd allegedly stacked to hide himself from view; run along the south wall of the building, weaving through the stacks of boxes that were in great disarray due to work being done laying a new floor that day; run north along the west wall of the building to the northwest stairway; carefully concealed the rifle behind several closely stacked piles of cartons, and tucked into a space underneath two stacks where it wouldn't be found until about 1:30 pm; then bolted down five flights of stairs -- where employees Victoria Adams and Sandra Styles were descending from the fourth to the first floor at the same time, though neither saw Oswald (46) -- and entered the second floor lunchroom, where he either bought a Coke or had one waiting for him. All this occurred in about a minute -- the Warren Commission said about a minute and a quarter; the HSCA said as little as 42 seconds (47). How did Oswald appear after this mad dash, when confronted by a policeman with his pistol drawn? Mr. TRULY. He didn't seem to be excited or overly afraid or anything. He might have been a bit startled, like I might have been if somebody confronted me. But I cannot recall any change in expression of any kind on his face (48). Mr. BAKER. I hollered at him . . . and said, 'Come here.' He turned and walked straight back to me. Representative BOGGS. Were you suspicious of this man? Mr. BAKER. No, sir; I wasn't (49). Representative BOGGS. When you saw him, was he out of breath, did he appear to have been running or what? Mr. BAKER. It didn't appear that to me. He appeared normal, you know. Representative BOGGS. Was he calm and collected? Mr. BAKER. Yes, sir. He never did say a word or nothing. In fact, he didn't change his expression one bit (50). Lee Harvey Oswald did not fire a gun at President Kennedy. Oswald was on the first floor in the rear of the building, about to walk up to the second floor and buy a Coke. When Officer Baker withdrew from the second floor recreation room and ran upstairs, Oswald was a three-second dash away from the rear exit. He didn't make this dash. He turned around and walked calmly across the second floor towards the front of the building (51). At this exact same time, at least one person was still on the sixth floor of the Book Depository. Lillian Mooneyham, clerk of the 95th District Court, told the FBI that "about four and a half to five minutes following the shots fired by the assassin . . . she looked up towards the sixth floor of the TSBD and observed the figure of a man standing in the sixth floor window behind some cardboard boxes. This man appeared to Mrs. Mooneyham to be looking out the window, however, the man was not close up to the window but was standing slightly back from it, so that Mrs. Mooneyham could not make out his features." The Warren Commission buried the report and did not call Mrs. Mooneyham as a witness (52). Had they done so, they might have had to acknowledge that SOMEBODY was still standing in the so-called "Oswald" window even while Oswald was encountering Officer Marrion Baker and TSBD Superintendent Roy S. Truly on the second floor. The House Select Committee, however, acknowledged the issue for reasons more persuasive than Mrs. Mooneyham's report. After immediately after the shots were fired, photographer Tom Dillard took a high quality snapshot of the upper south face of the TSBD building. Approximately thirty seconds after the shots were fired, a military intelligence named James Powell snapped an almost identical photograph of the building. (What was a military intelligence agent in plain clothes doing in Dealey Plaza? Ask HSCA Chief Counsel Robert Blakey -- he's the one who sealed Powell's top-secret testimony for fifty years.) By comparing the configuration of cartons stacked in the window in these photographs to that of others taken over the next few minutes, the HSCA's photographic panel was forced to admit that in the two minutes or so following the shots, someone was rearranging boxes on the sixth floor. Two separate motion pictures taken in the minutes following the gunfire by Charles Bronson (not the actor!) and Robert Hughes caught several seconds of distant footage of the sixth floor of the TSBD. The House Committee's photographic consultant, Robert Groden, believed the films showed one or perhaps two moving figures on the sixth floor. The Committee acknowledged that the possibility of human movement existed in the extremely enlarged, poor quality films but could not be proven or disproven. The HSCA concluded the movement was a random artifact of sunlight, shadows, or the film itself; one photographic panel member, Robert Selzer, dissented, insisting that more tests should be done (53). How did the Committee explain Oswald's presence at the end of Officer Baker's gun on the second floor at the exact same time someone was putting the finishing touches on the so-called sixth floor "sniper's nest?" They didn't explain it at all. Any inquiries may be addressed to G. Robert Blakey, Notre Dame University. At approximately 12:33 pm, Mrs. Robert Reid had just returned to her desk on the second floor of the Book Depository. Lee Harvey Oswald walked by her on his way from the lunch room (54). Mr. BELIN. Was there anything else you noticed about him? . . . Anything about his face? Mrs. REID. No; just calm (55). Mr. DULLES. Was he moving fast? Mrs. REID. No; because he was moving at a very slow pace. I never did see him moving fast at any time (56). On his way out of the building, Oswald was stopped by reporter Robert MacNeil, later of the MacNeil-Lehrer Report, who had been photographed a minute or two before atop the grassy knoll with dozens of others. Now he was looking for a telephone. Oswald pointed him towards one, and MacNeil departed from his brief brush with destiny (57). The Warren Commission decided that Oswald probably left the building at 12:33 pm. Based on the sightings by Mrs. Reid and Robert MacNeil, it was probably around 12:35 pm. He strolled out the front door, and walked east on Elm, catching an Oak Cliff-bound bus at around 12:40. The bus was traveling west, and drove past the Texas School Book Depository on its way to the triple underpass. His old landlady Mary Bledsoe happened to be on the bus, and avoided talking to him (58). Commission REP. BOGGS. There's nothing in [the FBI's report on the assassination] about Governor Connally. CHAIRMAN. No. SEN. COOPER. And whether or not they found any bullets in him. MR. MC CLOY. This bullet business leaves me confused. CHAIRMAN. It's totally inconclusive. SEN. RUSSELL. They couldn't find where one bullet came out that struck the President and yet they found a bullet in the stretcher. MR. MC CLOY. I think you ought to have the autopsy document. CHAIRMAN. By all means we ought to have the medical reports. We ought tohave them as part of this document here because they might play a very important part in it. MR. MC CLOY. I understand there are two. I may be wrong about this, but there's a report in Dallas by the surgeons who ttended him there, and then there was a rather thorough autopsy up at Walter Reed. REP. FORD. Bethesda. CHAIRMAN. Yes. So if there is no objection we'll settle for whatever medical reports there are from the several agencies. -- Warren Commission Executive Session Transcript of December 16, 1963 (59) How did the Warren Commission (and the House Select Committee on Assassinations after it) find Lee Harvey Oswald guilty of the assassination of President Kennedy? The Warren Report is, of course, widely available; but for those unfamiliar with its contents, we will provide a brief summary. A rifle found on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository was traced to Klein's Sporting Goods in Chicago; it had purchased by mail by an "A. J. Hidell." Oswald allegedly had an "Alek James Hidell" ID card on his person at the time of his arrest; and the order form received by Klein's was verified for the Commission as being in Oswald's handwriting. Furthermore, one bullet (Commission Exhibit 399) found on a stretcher at Parkland Memorial Hospital the afternoon of November 22 was ballistically matched to the 6.5 caliber Mannlicher-Carcano identified as Oswald's, to the exclusion of all other guns. The Dallas Police declared that there were three spent shells found near the inside of the southeast sixth floor window where Oswald was supposed to have fired. Furthermore, study of a home movie taken by bystander Abraham Zapruder indicated that the span of the three shots could have been only about six to eight seconds, depending on which bullets hit which target. The FBI found that it took, at the very minimum, 2.3 seconds to fire one shot and work the bolt to chamber the next round; therefore, the Commission was already pressing its luck when it surmised Oswald could have gotten off three shots in that time span. The FBI had concluded that Oswald had hit Kennedy with his first bullet, Connally with the second, and Kennedy (fatally) with the third (60). The FBI feigned ignorance of two problems: They didn't seem to be aware that Kennedy had a bullet wound to the front of his neck, and they didn't seem to be aware that their own agents had interviewed a bystander named James Tague who'd been standing by the triple underpass -- about 200 feet from the limousine -- when a bullet or large fragment struck the ground near him and sent a piece of metal or gravel to strike him on the cheek, where it drew blood. The Warren Commission acknowledged that this bullet almost certainly couldn't have been a ricochet from the limousine, some 200 feet away. (The Report had originally acknowledged it was impossible for this bullet to have come from the limousine, but had to change the statement when several of the Commissioners expressed serious doubts that a single bullet, CE 399, could account for all the non-fatal wounds.) The Warren Commission examined the Zapruder frames for the very first time on December 16, 1963. Having only the FBI report to go on, they were still of the belief that the neck wound came from the front. Here are their comments: Mr. MC CLOY. Now, here he's reaching up for his throat. Rep. BOGGS. But he's looking straight ahead, reaching up for his throat, that's very significant, I think. CHAIRMAN. There's another sequence which they did not include and it shows the burst of blood and things from his head, blown out, they did not put it inbecause they thought it was too gruesome, and that's the head shot, which apparently came from the rear. They've got that and you can blow it up and stop it and do everything, and we can have it whenever we want it. Mr. MC CLOY. You see this sign here, someone suggested that this sign has now been removed. Why I don't know. But from that sign you can get a pretty good idea where the angle was. That tree gives you a good notion of where the first bullet hit. Here's the place from which he shot. Now this thing down here, I don't know what that means, it looks as if that it where he was shot, but the tree is here, that's the only tree that I can see. Rep. FORD. Is it this tree here? Mr. MC CLOY. That's so small that I can't believe it's that tree. This tree is a fairly big tree. Rep. FORD. You're right. Mr. MC CLOY. Moreover, do you see here, in this perforated wall thing here, now that must be over here, it's not the same as that, because that's two and this one here must be along in here. Rep. FORD. But that person must have taken the shot over here some place? Mr. MC CLOY. Still I don't see how he could have been hit in the front from here. Rep. BOGGS. That's the big question, yes. Mr. MC CLOY. I inquired about this and they said that nobody was permitted on the overpass. Rep. BOGGS. Who says they weren't? Mr. MC CLOY. Well, they may have been there. Rep. BOGGS. And nobody was supposed to be in that building. Mr. MC CLOY. I think we ought to take a look at the grounds and somebody ought to do it and get the picture of this angle to see if it is humanly possible for him to have been hit in the front from a shot fired from that window [in the Texas School Book Depository. Maybe it is (61). Based on an apparent lack of other bullets recovered from the President's body or the limousine or elsewhere, the Commission concluded that CE 399 had inflicted all of the non-fatal wounds upon President Kennedy and Governor John B. Connally. There were seven non-fatal wounds to account for. The Commission said that one bullet struck Kennedy in the upper back or neck area; exited through the front of his neck; struck Connally in the back; transited his torso, shattering several inches of rib; exited his chest; struck Connally's wrist, shattering the radius; exited the other side of his wrist; entered his left thigh; and someone made its way out again, to be found wedged under the mattress on an unidentified stretcher at Parkland Memorial Hospital, in nearly pristine condition (i.e., unmutilated by contact with skin, bone, etc.) with no blood or tissue on its surface. This "single bullet theory" was necessary when the Commission recognized that a) Oswald could not have fired more than three shots in the allotted time span, which happened to coincide with the three spent shells found in the Book Depository; b) one shot missed the limousine altogether, striking the road near James Tague, where the bullet mark was photographed by a newsman in Dealey Plaza, as well as a shot of Tague's bleeding cheek; and c) that one bullet caused President Kennedy's fatal head wound, which was known to have been inflicted some seconds after the other known wounds. That left one bullet, one bullet which had to have caused all the other wounds, or else Oswald couldn't possibly have been the lone assassin -- and the Commission would have to conclude that a conspiracy killed President Kennedy. A startling, new fact has emerged recently, from where it had been buried deep inside the National Archives for thirty-five years: Newly discovered documents prove that the Dallas Police did not find three spent shells in the Texas School Book Depository; they found TWO, along with one LIVE (unfired) round. These documents include: 1) A Dallas Police Department report dated November 22, 1963, signed by Lt. Carl Day, the DPD's identifications expert, noting that evidence is being turned over to the jurisdiction of the FBI. It states that the listed items were found in the Texas School Book Depository between 1:30 and 2:15 pm that day. The items are the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, serial number C2766 (allegedly traced later to Oswald), and, an exact quote: "2 Spent Hulls from 6th floor window." Lt. Day's signature is followed by that of Officer R. L Studebaker, who witnessed the transfer of the evidence from Lt. Day to FBI Agent Vince Drain, who "took possession of all evidence." 2) A copy of the receipt of these items by the FBI: "1 6.5 Rifle # C2766" and "2 Spent hulls found at [illegible] School Book Depository." 3) A handwritten receipt for these additional items from the DPD: "2 [photographic] negatives + 4 prints of each of two 6.5 hulls + 1 "live" round of 6.5 ammunition from rifle found on 6th floor of Texas school [sic] Book Depository, Dallas on 11-22-63." 4) The original FBI evidence sheet for all items in their possession purportedly belonging to Lee Harvey Oswald, which lists "Live round 6.5" and "6.5 spent rounds (2)." This report was originally introduced into evidence as Commission Exhibit 2003, and published on page 260 of the Warren Commission's twenty-fourth volume of evidence, but -- as J. Gary Shaw and Larry Harris noted in their 1976 book, Cover-Up -- the published version's "6.5 spent rounds (2)" has the two altered to a three that appears to be handwritten. These and the following items are reproduced in full in Noel Twyman's 1997 book Bloody Treason (62). 5) Commission Exhibits 510 and 512, two police photographs of the three spent shells as they were allegedly found near the sixth floor window. Noel Twyman points out that in CE 510, one of the three hulls appears to be a live round; while the same hull in CE 512 (63) has been conspicuously blacked out, with a crude forgery of a shell drawn or scratched onto the negative (64). 6) The original FBI evidence envelope, signed by Special Agent J. Doyle Williams, which once contained the above-mentioned negatives and photographs of the spent shells from the Book Depository: "2 negatives and 4 prints of each," listing, "two 6.5 bullet hulls + 1 "live" round of 6.5 ammunition from rifle found on 6th floor of Texas Book Depository [sic], Dallas on 11-22-63" (65). 7) And the frosting on the cake, discovered in the National Archives recently by researcher Anna-Marie Kuhns-Walko, one of the actual DPD photographs depicting (you guessed it) two spent shells and one live round (66). Subsequently a third spent shell was added to the evidence. Whoever it was who ordered this third shell planted was also powerful enough to ensure not a single Dallas policeman, Sheriff's deputy or official would reveal to the Warren Commission that their signed, dated records of evidence had been altered and replaced, and that a third spent shell had been introduced as being from the Book Depository. Crossfire What really happened in Dealey Plaza? The author offers a scenario based on the available evidence. Keep in mind that while most spectators heard three or four shots, sophisticated rifle silencers had been in use in the military and intelligence services for over fifteen years, and had become available to the public in the early part of 1963. Some of the close ranges in Dealey Plaza were suitable for handguns as well (67). This, then, is a probable scenario for Dealey Plaza. The President's limousine was preceded by numerous Dallas policemen on motorcycles; a pilot car about a quarter mile ahead; and a lead car driven by Chief of Police Jesse Curry, and occupied by Dallas County Sheriff Bill Decker and Secret Service Agents Forrest Sorrels and Winston G. Lawson. The motorcade came west down Main Street, made a right going north on Houston, and almost immediately had to make an awkward 120-degree left turn on Elm Street heading west again; the car very nearly ran up on the sidewalk, and numerous spectators had to step back to avoid being hit. The first shot was fired only seconds after President Kennedy's limousine turned the corner of Elm and Houston. This first shot missed; some have speculated it was only intended as a "decoy" shot, to draw attention from the real shooters. Its effects are evident at about frame 160 of the Abraham Zapruder home movie, which shows a number of actions occurring in response to a shot: the President stops waving and his head jerks to his right; a little girl, Rosemary Willis, running on the grass alongside the limousine comes to a sudden halt and looks quizzically across the street; and Zapruder's camera jiggles as the photographer hears the shot. At this time -- and until the limousine reached the point where we see it in frame 210, the view of the limousine from the southeast sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository was obstructed by a tree, as the Warren Commission acknowledged (68). The next shot came from an undetermined point in front of the limousine, striking President Kennedy in the front of his neck. This bullet did not exit; we do not know what happened to it. This occurs just about simultaneously with Abraham Zapruder's view of the limousine becoming obstructed by a highway sign. Researchers disagree whether Kennedy was struck before passing behind the sign or when he is lost from view; Abraham Zapruder told the Warren Commission he saw Kennedy react to this shot before passing behind the sign. Until the President is temporarily lost to our view at frame 210, he is not visible to any gunman in the southeast sixth floor "Oswald" window. Every single medical witness at Parkland Memorial Hospital who saw this wound on the front of the President's neck believed it to be a wound of entrance -- i.e., from the front (69). The President reacted immediately, his elbows jerking into the air as his hands sprang to his throat; within seconds he had mercifully passed out. The bullet was never recovered, but the wound of entrance was remarkably small a neat round puncture wound about three millimeters in diameter. This size suggests a weapon of unusually small caliber, even for a handgun handguns are far from out of the question; the short distances in Dealey Plaza hardly required a rifle or, as some have speculated, a dart or flechette (70). Another shot struck President Kennedy in the back, a little below the right shoulder. It penetrated only about an inch, and did not exit. We do not know what happened to it. The FBI's original report on the assassination, based on the reports of Agents Sibert and O'Neill, who had attended the autopsy, stated very plainly that the three autopsy pathologists found that this wound penetrated only about the length of one joint of a finger, and they didn't know where the bullet went. It did not exit, and it was not in the body (71) Another shot struck Governor John B. Connally in the back and exited his chest. It is possible, though far from certain, that this same bullet penetrated the Governor's wrist. A small fragment, not a full bullet, then ricocheted, lodging in the Governor's left thigh, where it remained until the Governor's death, and in fact where it remains it his coffin. The Zapruder film seems to indicate that Connally's right hand was still holding on to his Stetson hat -- an impossibility with a shattered radius for some frames after he clearly was reacting to his chest wound. Many researchers feel his wrist (and possibly thigh) were struck by a shot that came about a second after the President appears to be fatally shot at frame 313; something appears to propel Connally downward into his wife's lap at this time, but it is not certain this this reflects a second bullet strike. Without the bullets to examine, we cannot determine with certainly how many bullets struck Connally (72). The most likely point of origin of the bullets that struck Connally is the southwest window of the Texas School Book Depository; a high vantage point would be required for the steep trajectory (ruling out the sixth floor southeast "Oswald" window), as a lower shot would have struck Kennedy, not Connally. Other possible points are the roofs of any of the four buildings behind the limousine: the TSBD, the Dal-Tex Building, the Dallas County Records Office, or even possibly the Criminal Courts Building at Main and Houston. Striking Connally was a serious mistake that very nearly made the case for a lone assassin untenable. Interestingly, the morning of November 22, President Kennedy and Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson quite literally got in a shouting match in Kennedy's hotel room over which Texas dignitary would be sitting in the President's limousine. Tthe Vice-President wanted Kennedy to ride with the upstart Texas populist, Senator Ralph Yarborough, rather than LBJ's then-protege, Governor Connally (73). After the assassination, and Johnson's ascent to the presidency, Connally and LBJ underwent a permanent falling out, precipitating Connally's unexpected defection to the Republican party. As the limousine passed the front steps of the Texas School Book Depository, five witnesses saw a bullet strike the pavement on Elm Street near the left front of the car; it kicked up a cloud of dust and bits of concrete in the direction of the car (74). Royce Skelton was a railroad worker watching the motorcade from atop the triple underpass; he saw a bullet miss the limousine and strike the pavement (75). Mr. SKELTON. . . . I saw a bullet, or I guess it was a bullet -- I take for granted it was -- hit in the left front of the President's car on the cement, and when it did, the smoke carried with it -- away from the building. . . . on the pavement -- you know, pavement when it is hit with a hard object, it will scatter -- it will spread (76). Dallas policeman Starvis Ellis was riding a motorcycle about 100 feet in front of the President's limousine. When the shooting began, Ellis turned turned the limousine and saw debris fly up, presumably from this same bullet strike (77). Mrs. Virginia Baker also saw it; she believed the shots came from in front of the car by the triple underpass (78). Warren Commission defenders Gerald Posner and Jim Moore believe this was not a bullet at all, but possibly a skull fragment of the President's (79). That would have to be one high velocity skull fragment. "In August of 1978, the HSCA received a phone call from Charles Rodgers of Lake Dallas, Texas, who was present in Dealey Plaza during the assassination with a friend, Mike Nally. Nally's uncle, who was a motorcycle policeman in the motorcade, told his nephew Mike that when the shots were fired he heard a clanging noise on the fender of his motorcycle. When he looked down he saw a .45 caliber slug roll off into the street. The policeman was unable to stop and investigate since he was part of the motorcade that began to speed toward the hospital. Rodgers said that Mike Nally told him that his uncle had instructed them not to mention the story about .45 caliber slug. The HSCA was unable to locate Mike Nally or even identify the name of Nally's uncle" (80). One shot missed and struck the curb of Main Street near spectator James Tague; a fragment of either the bullet or asphalt nicked Tague's cheek and drew blood. Tague saw the bullet hit the curb, and the fresh mark was photographed several times by Tom Dillard. Tague believed firmly that the shot was the second or possibly third fired, but not the first (81). If this was the first shot, Tague was roughly 300 feet away, the length of a football field, from the limousine at that point in time (82). The likely source of origin is a low floor, probably the second, of the Dal-Tex Building, across the street to the southeast of the Book Depository. It would take a shot only the slightest bit high of the mark to line up the Dal-Tex street-side second floor window with the "Tague" bullet strike at the triple underpass. One shot missed the limousine and struck a spot in the grass just south of Elm Street, about 350 feet from the Book Depository. Officer J. W. Foster was standing on top of the triple underpass, and had a clear view of Elm; he saw the bullet strike the turf. He reported this to a superior, and was instructed to guard the area (83). Journalists and bystanders were kept away from the area. This could be the first shot that missed, although, again, it would have to have been a truly terrible shot to have missed the limousine by such a distance. Wayne and Edna Hartman were near Dealey Plaza when the shots rang out. They ran through the Plaza and encountered a policeman on the grassy knoll. Edna Hartman later recalled to Jim Marrs, "He pointed to some bushes near the railroad tracks on the north side of the street and said that's where the shots came from. . . . Then I noticed these two parallel marks on the ground that looked like mounds made by a mole. I asked, 'What are these, mole hills?' and the policeman said, 'Oh no, ma'am, that's where the bullets struck the ground'" (84). Photographer Hugh Betzner noticed "police officers and some men in plain clothes . . . digging around in the dirt as if they were looking for a bullet" (85). Photographers Jim Murray and Bill Allen took a famous sequence of pictures showing Deputy Sheriff E. R. "Buddy" Walthers (in civilian clothes) and watching a blond-haired man he believed to be an FBI agent point at the dug-out spot on the ground just off Elm Street, bend over, scoop something up from the turf, then put the item in his pocket. Police Chief Jesse Curry said the man was FBI, but he didn't know his name; some have identified him as FBI Special Agent Robert Barrett, who will be mentioned again in the context of suspicious handling of evidence. The photographs have been widely published in newspapers, magazines, and assassination-related books, sometimes using two or three shots to depict the sequence of events. Murray also photographed the hole that was left in the turf after the scene had been cleared; this photograph ran in the following day's Fort Worth Star-Telegram, captioned, "One of the rifle bullets fired by the murderer of President Kennedy lies in the grass across Elm Street . . ." The Dallas Times-Herald reported in reference to the hole in the grass, "Dallas Police Lt. J. C. Day of the crime lab estimated the distance from the sixth-floor window . . . to the spot where one of the bullets was recovered at 100 yards." Richard Randolph Carr, the man who saw a gunman leave the Book Depository and get into a Nash Rambler station wagon, testified at the 1969 trial of Clay Shaw that he heard four shots fired, the last three of which he believed came from behind the wooden stockade fence on the grassy knoll. He saw a bullet strike the turf opposite the knoll where it "knocked a bunch of grass up." Judging from the mark on the grass, Carr said the bullet had been traveling in a southeast direction from the knoll toward the Criminal Courts building at Elm and Houston (86). Richard Dudman wrote in the December 21, 1963, New Republic: "On the say the President was shot I happened to learn of a possible fifth [bullet]. A group of police officers were examining the area at the side of the street where the President was hit, and a police inspector told me they had just found another bullet in the grass." It's a pity Mr. Dudman didn't take the officer's name. The man who picked the item up was never officially identified; the Warren Commission took Buddy Walthers' word that whatever the thing was that struck the grass with enough force to attract the attention of a police officer some distance away and a handful of spectators, it wasn't a bullet or bullet fragment. There was another bullet strike only about three to five feet from this one, but it wasn't noticed right away. A Dealey Plaza witness named John Martin discovered it about two and a half hours after the shooting, and quickly informed a policeman, "you better get your boss down here to check this thing out, because that will show you where the bullet came from" (87). The mark very clearly does not point back to the Texas School Book Depository; it appears to have struck from the direction of the County Records Building, where a 30.06 bullet shell was found later (88). Jim Murray was again on hand, and took a number of photographs of police officers examining the spot, including identifications officer Lt. Carl Day, who spent some time at this spot with his crime lab kit; it is obviously later in the day as the crowd has dispersed. The photos can be found in Richard Trask's Pictures of the Pain. Because of the close proximity of the strikes, it is possible that a bullet struck the manhole and bounced into the grass, but given the high visibility of the shot that struck the grass and the reasonably deep gouge in the turf, it's hard to believe this was a bouncing fragment. Even if it was, the fragment was never entered into the record. Another bullet struck the sidewalk along the north side of Elm Street. It apparently was first discovered a day or two later by Dallas resident Eugene Aldredge. It was a gash about four inches long and a quarter of an inch deep. Aldredge didn't report it to anyone, assuming it had not gone unnoticed by the authorities. At least one photograph of it was taken; it is pictured in several books, including Groden's The Killing of the President, 40. After the Warren Report came out, Aldredge was shocked not to see the missed bullet mentioned, and notified the FBI (89). The FBI located it and wrote up a report describing it as approximately four inches long, a half inch wide, and a "dug out" appearance. Less than a week later, Aldredge brought a friend to see it, and found it had been filled in. Dallas Morning News reporter Carl Freund also identified the mark as a bullet strike. The FBI dismissed its importance as evidence because it clearly did not point to the TSBD "Oswald" window, therefore couldn't be relevant to the assassination. Groden notes that the gash lines up with the southwest sixth floor TSBD window; Harrison Livingstone notes it also lines up with the south storm drain of the triple underpass (90). There are numerous reports of other missed shots; some bullets have even been found in Dealey Plaza, literally years after the assassination. In 1975, a maintenance man named Morgan found a 30.06 shell on the roof of the County Records Building, which is about half a block south of the Book Depository. The casing has an odd crimp in its neck, suggesting it may have been fired from a sabot, a device used to fire a smaller caliber bullet out of a large caliber weapon. This is useful for criminals, as the caliber, type, and brand of the recovered bullet cannot be linked with their gun. The shell had been hidden underneath a lip of roofing tar, and was greatly deteriorated from exposure to moisture; it had obviously been there a while (91). A fired but intact bullet was found on the top of the Massey Roofing Co. building on Elm Street, about eight blocks from the TSBD, by Richard Haythorne in 1967. No official study was made until the HSCA pronounced it a jacketed, soft-point .30 caliber bullet consistent with Remington-Peters ammunition; it had not been fired from the 6.5 caliber Mannlicher-Carcano (92). In 1974, Dallas resident Richard Lester swept Dealey Plaza with a metal detector, and discovered a fragment -- the base portion of a bullet -- 500 yards southwest of the TSBD and 61 paces east of the triple underpass. Later he turned it over to the FBI, and it was studied by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978. They found that the fragment was from a 6.5 mm bullet, but that it had not been fired from the alleged "Oswald" Mannlicher-Carcano: its rifling pattern was different (93). A whole, unfired .45 caliber bullet was found in 1976 by Hal Luster by the concrete retaining wall on the knoll (94). In the summer of 1966, an intact bullet was found lodged in the roof of a building at 1615 Stemmons Freeway by William Barbee. The building was about a quarter mile away from the Texas School Book Depository -- within rifle rangle -- in the direction that Oswald had allegedly fired. The FBI identified the bullet as a .30 caliber full metal jacketed military bullet; its rifling pattern of four grooves, right hand twist is consistent with ammunition of US manufacture. This is the type of bullet the CIA used with their silenced M-1 .30 caliber carbine rifles; civilians were not allowed to purchase them until the middle of 1963, and full metal jacketed bullets are illegal for use in hunting (95). Two spent Remington .222 bullet casings were found in Dealey Plaza by John Rademacher, about eighty feet apart, one on each end of the concrete pergola that stands midway between the Texas School Book Depository and the triple underpass. One was just to the east, while the other was just west of it, between the pergola and the wooden stockade fence on the grassy knoll. One of the casings has strange indentations which appear to be teeth marks on it; a Houston orththodontist examined the shell and said that it could be teeth marks from a person or animal, but he could not be certain (96). Carol Hewett also notes two other puzzling bits of data: "The HSCA makes passing reference to the 'Walder' bullet that was also submitted for testing; the author could find no other mention of this particular item of evidence" (97). Hewett also references "the report from a top FBI administrator, Alan Belmont, to Clyde Tolson, Hoover's second in command, in which Belmont on the night of November 22nd advises that a bullet has been found lodged behind the President's ear (98): "I told [Dallas bureau chief Gordon] Shanklin FBI has one of the bullets, the other is stuck behind his ear," consistent with the Sibert-O'Neill evidence envelope that was supposed to contain a "missile," not a fragment or fragments (99). Photographs exist which appear to show bullet strikes in the limousine's front windshield and on a strip of chrome on the dashboard. Several newsmen attested that an apparent bullet hole was visible on the windshield, and the Secret Service kept anyone from coming too close. These may just have been from ricocheting fragments, as the Warren Commission, but one would feel more comfortable if Lyndon B. Johnson hadn't ordered the limousine stripped and rebuilt the weekend of the assassination, so that we could see for ourselves -- particularly when the photographs seem to clearly depict bullet strikes. Controversy has always raged over the question of how many shots struck John F. Kennedy in the head. At least one shot was fired from the front of the limousine. It entered the President's right temple at the hairline and exploded out the right rear of his head. Apparently (if the Zapruder film can be trusted) the shot sent Kennedy's head "back and to the left," as the famous words from Oliver Stone's JFK put it. If this actions represents the President being forced backward by the momentum of the bullet impact (as many believe, but which of course can never be proven or disproved) then the bullet was not fired from the famous "grassy knoll," where most people believe it originated. In fact, Elm Street runs perpendicular to the stockade fence on the knoll, and the limousine was nearly alongside the point where some believed a shot was fired. A shot from this location would have entered the right side of Kennedy's head and exited from the left, throwing Kennedy directly into Jacqueline, and possibly wounding her as well. DPD Officer Bobby Hargis was riding on the motorcycle to the left rear of the limousine, several feet behind the car. (Procedure dictated that the car should have been flanked by motorcycles directly to the left and right of the President's seat, but Kennedy stubbornly refused to let anyone get in the way of the spectators who turned out to greet him.) Hargis cannot be seen in the Zapruder film when projected; he is only visible when slides made from the original are viewed. These original frames contain approximately twenty percent more information on the left of the picture in the area of the sprocket holes; these images are not projected. In these frames, Hargis can be clearly seen behind the car on the left. This is important because when the shot struck the President from the front right, Hargis -- behind and to the left -- was splattered with a large amount of the blood, bone and brain matter that blasted out of the President's head toward the rear. Hargis himself was struck with such force that for a moment he actually believed he had been shot (100). It is nearly impossible that the shot came from the triple underpass, which was in clear view of all spectators and which held a number of workers from the nearby rail yard, none of whom believed a shot came from the underpass. The most likely firing positions for this shot, as author Harrison Livingstone and Dallas reporter Earl Golz have pointed out, are the two storm drains located at the north and sound ends of the triple underpass, which connect with the north and south knolls. (There are two "grassy knolls"; the famous one is the northern edge of Dealey Plaza.) If the films by Abraham Zapruder and Orville Nix, a spectator filming from south of Elm Street, can be trusted, then the President was struck almost simultaneously by two shots -- one from behind and one in front. Between frames 312 and 313 of the Zapruder film, Kennedy's head is thrust forward several inches by an apparent bullet strike, then frame 313 contains the famous graphic head shot from the front. The Nix film depicts the exact same phenomenon, indicating two shots. Many eyewitnesses recalled two shot fired simultaneously or very nearly so. The autopsy report did not note a frontal skull entry, but it noted a rear skull entry. It is difficult to determine when the autopsy report can be trusted. Many believe that the autopsists were ordered to "overlook" the front entry. Based on the available evidence, it is possible that the President was struck twice in the head, which would also account for the tremendous damage inflicted, which seems much too extensive for one bullet. The consensus among researchers is that the two-shot hypothesis is valid if not probable (101). It would appear that at least four gunmen were firing from four separate locations. Possible locations include the many windows and the roof of the Texas School Book Depository, the Dal-Tex Building, the Dallas County Records Building, from behind the stockade fence on the grassy knoll, the north and south storm drains alonside the overpass, the two manholes alongside Elm Street, and still others. If this reconstruction is reasonably accurate, how did the autopsy pathologists come to such a different conclusion? The autopsy pathologists projected that the President's front neck wound was a wound of exit based on the fact that Kennedy had obviously been struck in the back, and they could not figure out where that bullet exited. Therefore, they speculated that it must have exited at the only other non-fatal wound -- the front throat wound (102). The plotters had to ensure that all unwanted bullets disappeared from the record, and they had to have the power to keep all the witnesses quiet. That's no small amount of power. Is there any evidence that there were once more bullets or fragments than are now in the record? Researcher Anna-Marie Kuhns-Walko turned up some interesting items at the National Archives in 1996: several photographs labeled as being of a bullet "removed from President Kennedy's body." It is not one of the tiny fragments that have been part of the record for thirty-five years. No other information is available: no photographer listed; no indication of when it was recovered; or what part of the body it came from; or if it was recovered at Parkland, Bethesda, or elsewhere. Just several photos of a bullet "removed from President Kennedy's body" that no one's ever seen before. Anna-Marie also discovered an empty envelope, originally marked, "Shell 7.5 found in Dealey Plaza 11/22/63. This would be an expended cartridge found somewhere in Dealey Plaza, presumably not far from where it was fired; and regardless of where in Dealey Plaza it was found (which the envelope doesn't state), it's a 7.5 caliber, not a 6.5 caliber like the Mannlicher-Carcano. No one outside a very select circle, apparently, ever heard of this item before. Why is the envelope empty? Written right after the previously quoted description: "DETERMINED OF NO VALUE AND DESTROYED." Also "determined of no value and destroyed were the notes kept by Drs. Humes, Boswell and Finck during the course of the autopsy. Boswell says he didn't keep any; Finck says that between the end of the autopsy and the time he was ready to head home, his notes simply vanished; and Humes told the Warren Commission that he burned his in the fireplace of his home recreation room because he didn't want the blood-stained pages ever to become ghoulish "collector's items." Pioneering researcher Harold Weisberg scrutinized the Warren Commission's files, then sued repeatedly to get more released. He paid particular attention to the autopsy records and what was missing from them. He came to the conclusion that it was not merely notes that Humes had destroyed, but the entire first draft of his autopsy report, which he revised early in the afternoon of November 24, 1963 -- just after the death of Lee Harvey Oswald, when it was clear there would be no trial for the assassination of President Kennedy, and that his autopsy report would not have to face the adversary procedure of law. In 1997, when subpoenaed by the Assassination Records Review Board, Humes faced his first intensive cross-examination concerning the autopsy record in 35 years. He admitted to burning not only his notes but the preliminary draft of the autopsy report as well. Did any other autopsy records find their way into the memory hole the week of the assassination? Why, yes. The record -- while contradictory -- shows that several dozen photographs and X-rays were taken of President Kennedy before and during the autopsy. All but about ten have vanished, and the ones we have now do not show the wounds that the many medical professionals at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas and Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland remember. What happened to all the others? Secret Service Agent James Fox had been retired for some time when he happened to meet Mark Crouch, a former radio broadcaster who'd opened an electronics store that Fox frequented. After several conversations, Fox learned that Crouch was interested in the Kennedy assassination; Crouch didn't realize that Fox appears in the Warren Report as the agent who performed a number of duties with regard to the autopsy photographs for Secret Service Protective Research Division chief Robert I. Bouck. Fox told him that he had his own set of Kennedy autopsy photographs, and later allowed Crouch to see them. It was the first time anyone outside of the federal government had ever viewed them; it was a black and white set of all but one of the photographs now in evidence. Fox said that about a week after the assassination, Bouck had given the negatives to Fox and instructed him to make a set of prints. According to Fox, Bouck also said he could make a set for himself, and that they'd be valuable one day. (Bouck would later deny giving Fox permission to make copies.) (103) Later, James Fox would confide to Crouch that there was more to the story: that about a week after the assassination, he watched as Robert Bouck removed the autopsy photographs and negatives from his office safe, dropped them in his metal garbage can, struck a match, and torched the whole lot. Fox referred to this as the "burn party." Fox said that it was the very next day that Bouck presented him with the NEW set and told him to make copies. Bouck, of course, denied the entire story to the HSCA, and the Committee wasn't terribly interested in investigating further (104). In 1998, photographer Robert Knudson testified to the Assassination Records Review Board that he had been present in the morgue during the autopsy of President Kennedy, and had exposed several rolls of film of the procedure. He saw some of the photographs after they were developed, and he told the ARRB that the photographs currently in evidence are not the ones he took, and do not depict the same wounds he saw both in the morgue that night and on the film he developed. (Knudson -- like literally dozens of other eyewitnesses -- is not listed in the official record of those present at the autopsy; others, however, recall him being there.) Like virtually every single other eyewitness, Knudson was particularly disturbed by the posterior photographs, which show an intact back of the head where the witnesses say there should be a tremendous wound of exit. The autopsy pathologists were vague about the placement of the large gaping wound in their report, however they testified that it was on the top of the head, not the back. The HSCA report concluded that the doctors were off a bit, placing the exit wound at the top of the head, but in front of the President's ear, not directly above it as the Warren Commission concluded. Yet another off-the-record series of photographs from the autopsy is missing, and the circumstances are even more unusual. Lt. Commander William Bruce Pitzer was in the morgue that evening, and filmed at least part of the procedure with a motion picture camera. His good friend Dennis David, who was Officer of the Day the night of the autopsy, helped Pitzer edit the film about a week later. David remembers that Pitzer had a number of color slides and black and white photographs as well, but isn't certain if they had been taken separately, or were merely enlarged frames of the motion picture film. The record is absolutely silent about the film; the only person besides Pitzer known to have seen it is Dennis David. On Sunday, October 29, 1966, Lt. Cmdr. William Bruce Pitzer was found dead at Bethesda Naval Hospital, in civilian clothes, a bullet wound having entered his right temple and exited through the left; a pistol was found nearby. The death was judged a suicide, and the autopsy report was ordered sealed; even his widow was not allowed to obtain it until almost thirty years later, and even then she had to sue for it. Mrs. Pitzer and her family have never believed that Bruce Pitzer committed suicide. The autopsy report indicates that Pitzer had three head wounds, two of which appear to be entrance wounds at close range. The obvious implication is that he was murdered, yet the state of Maryland refuses to reopen the case. Dennis David believes that Pitzer's death is related to the autopsy film he possessed (105). Coincidentally, the very day following Pitzer's death was the day the government announced that -- in response to numerous complaints in the press about the Warren Commission's decision not to consult the autopsy X-rays and photographs in the pursuance of their investigation -- the three autopsy pathologists would be shown the photographs and X-rays for the very first time -- in private -- and confirm that the photos were authentic. This they could not be expected to do in good faith, as they had never viewed them, and would be only assuming that the photos represented that which they purported to represent. Nevertheless, the three doctors did just that. Secretly, Attorney General Ramsey Clark also convened a panel of pathologists to confirm that the photos and X-rays supported the autopsy report and the Warren Commission's findings. The Clark Panel, as it was called, reported that the photos and X-rays did indeed support the Warren Commission -- just in time to discredit the Garrison investigation. Researcher Harold Weisberg, in his book Post-Mortem, was the first to study the Clark Panel's report, and observe that the wounds indicated in the report CONTRADICTED the original autopsy report, showing the head wound of entrance, the head wound of exit, and the back wound of entrance in DIFFERENT LOCATIONS than the official autopsy report placed them -- the same locations the HSCA would eventually conclude were authentic. It CONTRADICTED the autopsy report, and further INVALIDATED the single bullet theory (106). A memorable passage in the HSCA Hearings occurs when autopsy pathologists Doctors Humes and Boswell are questioned by the HSCA's Forensic Pathology Panel, including Chairman Michael M. Baden, MD, the (then) chief medical examiner of New York City; John I. Coe, MD, chief medical examiner of Hennepin County, Minnesota; Joseph H. Davis, MD, chief medical examiner of Dade County, Miami, Florida; George S. Loquvam, MD, director of the Institute of Forensic Sciences, Oakland, California; and Charles S. Petty, MD, chief medical examiner, Dallas County, Texas. This PRIVATE hearing, one of several, took place on September 16, 1977, in preparation for the Committee's PUBLIC hearing, which would be televised the next day. We join the panel as it tries to reconcile the apparent wound photographed on the TOP of the President's head in some of the photographs and X-rays with the apparent wound photographed at the lower right REAR of the President's head in at least one of the exact same photographs. The LOWER wound is the one that appears in the official autopsy report, and it is this LOWER wound that Humes, Boswell, and Finck (who is not present at this hearing) maintain was the actual entrance wound. The X-rays prove this false. Here is the pertinent exchange. Dr. PETTY. Can I go back to another interpretation which is very important to this committee? I don't really mean to belabor the point, but we need to be certain, as certain as we can be -- and I'm showing you now photograph No. 15, and here, to put it in the record, is the posterior hairline or margin of the hair of the late President, and there, near the midline, and just a centimeter or two above the hairline, is an area that you refer to as the inshoot wound. Dr. HUMES. Yes, sir. Dr. PETTY. Also, on this same photograph is a ruler, and approximately 2 centimeters or so down the ruler and just to the right of it is a second apparent area of defect, and this has been enlarged and is shown to you in an enlargement, I guess No. 16, which shows you, right opposite the 1 centimeter mark on the ruler, this defect, or what appears to be a defect [the apparent entry wound]. I don't see the connection with the lacerated margin of the scalp anywhere. Dr. BADEN. And No. 15 shows an enlargement of the lower area that's suggestive of an inshoot to you. Dr. PETTY. And what we're trying to do is to satisfy ourselves that the bullet actually came in near the margin of the hair and not near the tip of the ruler as is shown in photograph No. 16. Dr. HUMES. . . . Dr. Boswell offered the interpretation that it might be an extension of a scalp wound. I don't share his opinion about that. I don't know what that is. Number one, I can assure you that as we reflected the scalp to get to this point, there was no defect corresponding to this [alleged entry wound in the top of the head] in the skull at any point. I don't know what that [the alleged entry wound in the photograph] is. It could be to me clotted blood. I don't, I just don't know what it is, but it certainly was not any wound of entrance. Dr. DAVIS. . . . I think perhaps what we can consider is the problem of the tangential striking bullet which enters the head, tunnels . . . strikes the bone tangentially, fragments, and then one part of a fragment can skip out through the scalp again, which may explain this wound we see here in enlargement No. 16. . . . I think all of us who have done a fair number of investigations like this are well aware that a bullet can split into fragments and one fragment can be deflected downward, another fragment can be deflected inward and slightly upward, and even a third fragment can go straight. There's all sorts of things can happen with bullets when they strike in this manner. I think I can see radiopaque trails [in the X-rays] which could reconcile the testimony and opinion of Dr. Humes that this material, this brain material, represents the loss of brain from the entrance site; and also it reconciles with his statement and also with Dr. Boswell's statement that there was tunneling. . . . So I'm advancing that as an investigative hypothesis for investigative opinion, for discussion at this time, to see if we can arrive at a consensus. Dr. HUMES. I would like to comment further, from our point of view, that these enlargements which you have shown us now of these other photographs is the first time I have seen these enlargements; I have not seen them before. Dr. DAVIS. These were just made up 2 or 3 days ago. Two days ago. Dr. PETTY. May I make a comment on what you just said, Dr. Davis. The problem, as I see it, is that this may be in fact a tunneling situation, with the bullet scooting along the skull here or somewhere, and not entering the skull down below. Is that what you're saying now? Dr. DAVIS. What I'm saying -- what I'm inferring: in the absence of photographs and specific measurements, we could only conjecture as to how long the tunneling is, but I would envision this as a tunneling first and then entry into the skull. Mr. LOQUVAM. Gentlemen, may I say something? Dr. DAVIS. Yes. Dr. LOQUVAM. I don't think this discussion belongs in this record. Dr. PETTY. All right. Dr. HUMES. I agree. Dr. LOQUVAM. We have no business recording this. This is for us to decide between ourselves; I don't think this belongs in this record. Dr. PETTY. Well, we have to say something about our feeling as to why we're so interested in that one particular area. Dr. HUMES. Could I make a comment that I think would be helpful to you, and you can throw out anything I say or whatever? But I feel obligated to make a certain interjection at this point, having heard this theory which I hadn't heard from the committee because I didn't pay that much attention quite frankly. Our attention was obviously directed to what we understood and thought to be clearly a wound of entrance [in the lower right rear of the head at the hairline]. If such a fragment were to have detached itself from the main mass of the missile, it would have to be a relatively small fragment because the size of the defect in the skull which approximated this point was almost identical with the size of the defect in the skin. Do you follow that line of reasoning? Dr. PETTY. Yes, that makes sense. I mean, I've seen the same thing. Dr. DAVIS. I've seen the same thing -- bothers me a bit -- part of that casing comes off. Dr. COE. The reason we are so interested in this, Dr. Humes, is because other pathologists have interpreted the -- Dr. LOQUVAM. I don't think this belongs in the damn record. Dr. HUMES. Well, it probably doesn't. Dr. LOQUVAM. You guys are nuts. You guys are nuts writing this stuff. It doesn't belong in that damn record. Dr. BADEN. I think the only purpose of its being in the record is to explain to Dr. Humes what -- Dr. LOQUVAM. Why not turn off the record and explain to him and then go back and talk again. Dr. BADEN. Well, our problem is not to get our opinions, but to get his opinions. Dr. LOQUVAM. All right then, keep our opinions off. Here's Charles [Petty] and Joe [Davis] talking like mad in the damn record, and it doesn't belong in it. Sorry. Dr. BADEN. Dr. Humes, realizing our concerns, if there is anything that you or Dr. Boswell can say that can help clarify any further the entrance wound and track of the bullet in the head we would be most appreciative. Dr. HUMES. I think we're at a distinct disadvantage because, as I said, when we cataloged the photographs and numbered them, and spent half a day or day to do it, I'll confess to possibly even overlooking the area to which you gentlemen, and apparently someone else, has directed attention. I would not attempt to make an interpretation of what it represents because I can't at this point. . . . Whether this "defect" is a "defect," in my mind, I'm not sure. I'm not sure it's not some clotted blood that's lying on the scalp. Dr. BADEN. What we're trying to do is to have your best opinions and recollections to deal with. Dr. HUMES. Right. Dr. BADEN. . . . George, is there anything further you'd like to add? Dr. LOQUVAM. No, I've said my piece (107). NOTES: 1. 6 H 383, 19 H 499. 2. CD 5.41. 3. WR 600, 613. 4. WR 605, CE 491. 5. WR 3. 6. 2 H 169-72. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid. 9. 2 H 183. 10. WR 251. 11. 2 H 167-68; HSCA Staff Report on Dealey Plaza Witnesses. 12. Dillard Exhibit C. 13. See also Commission Exhibit 485, a photograph of the three men reenacting their locations at the time. 14. CE 357. 15. WR 251. 16. 6 H 263-64; HSCA Staff Report on Dealey Plaza Witnesses. 17. *Dallas Morning News,* November 26, 1978. 18. HSCA Staff Report on Dealey Plaza Witnesses. 19. 24 H 522. 20. Robert Groden, *The Killing of a President,*208-9. 21. Groden, 158, 207. 22. 6 H 194, 203-4. 23. 6 H 193. 24. 6 H 193, 204. 25. 6 H 195. 26. 6 H 205. 27. 6 H 197, 199. 28. 6 H 167, 170. 29. 2 H 205-6. 30. 2 H 159. 31. 3 H 144-5, 148. 32. Public discussion of September 30, 1966; cited in Sylvia Meagher, *Accessories after the Fact,* 13. 33. WR 253. 34. CD 285; HSCA Vol. XII. 35. 6 H 266. Over the next few years, Roger Craig -- the Sheriff's Office 1960 Officer of the Year -- found himself hounded out of the Sheriff's Office and Dallas; several attempts were made on his life. He had such a difficult time providing for his family that, this author is sad to report, Craig later began to embellish upon his original testimony, presumably for the slight bit of added income that may have been generated. As virtually all of his original 1963 statements have been corroborated by other witnesses and evidence, his testimony from this period is undoubtedly credible. On May 15, 1975, Roger Craig committed suicide by shooting himself with a rifle. He was 39. 36. Michael L. Kurtz, *Crime of the Century,* 132. 37. Kurtz, 189. 38. Author's interview with Dr. Michael L. Kurtz, October 5, 1998. 39. CD 5.70; 12 HSCA 18. 40. FBI report by Special Agent Earle Haley. 41. John Kelin, "Yet Another Eyewitness," Fair Play #17, available on-line at: &&& gopher://freenet.a kron.oh.us/h0/SIGS/JFK/FP/fp.back_issues/.17th_Issue/rambler_witness.html 42. Robert Groden, *The Search for Lee Harvey Oswald,* 245. 43. WR 149-52. 44. 3 H 250-52; Ibid. 45. 3 H 224-25; Ibid. 46. 6 H 392. 47. HSCA *Final Report.* 48. 3 H 224-25. 49. 3 H 250-51. 50. 3 H 252. 51. 3 H 74; Meagher, 72. 52. FBI report of January 10, 1964; 24 H 531, cited in Marrs, 52-53. 53. 25 H 873; CD 205, 158; 6 HSCA 109, 115, 121, 309, *Final Report,* 7; cited in Summers, *Conspiracy,* paperback ed., 45, and Marrs, *Crossfire,* 53. 54. 3 H 278. 55. Ibid. 56. 3 H 279. 57. Robert MacNeil, *The Way We Were: 1963, The Year Kennedy Was Shot.* 58. WR 161. 59. The full transcript is posted on-line: Here 60. FBI Summary Report, CD 1; see research appendices. 61. See citation #59. 62. Twyman, evidence sheets 112-13. 63. 17 H 221. 64. 17 H 223; Twyman 114-5. 65. Twyman, 116. 66. Twyman, 111. 67. Shortly after writing this, the author came across an interesting passage in Jim Hougan's *Spooks: The Haunting of America -- The Private Use of Secret Agents,* discussing legendary weapons designer Mitch WerBell. WerBell, an intelligence asset who went into business for himself, may be best known for his 1969 invention, the Ingram M-11, the "machine pistol" that weighs less than four pounds, is only slightly larger than a silenced handgun,fires 850 rounds a minute -- fourteen .380 caliber bullets a second -- sold for under $100, and makes little more noise than an air conditioning unit (Hougan, 36). Hougan describes in detail one of the more esoteric advantages of such an item: "As it happens, there are not one but two sounds made by a weapon's firing. The first is that of the powder exploding; the second is the sonic boom that results when a high-velocity shell exceeds the sound barrier. WerBell's suppressor . . . virtually eliminated the first noise. The second sound could also be prevented: all that was necessary was for the shooter to lower the velocity of his bullet by using less powder than usual . . . . (Soldiers in Vietnam, however, found that the sonic boom had its own utility: because the bullet moved faster than the speed of sound, those being ambushed heard the shot only as it moved away from them. As a consequence their first reaction was to retreat into the direction from which the shots had actually come -- WALKING BACKWARD INTO THE SAME AMBUSH [emphasis in original])" (Hougan, 35-6). Then in a footnote, Hougan adds this afterthought: "It's curious that no one seems to have mentioned this characteristic in connection with the John F. Kennedy assassination, in which both the number and direction of shots fired are still debated. If a silencer was used in combination with another, unsilenced rifle, witnesses located in different parts of the caravan and Dealey Plaza would have heard the shots coming from different directions. Unanimity would have been impossible on the subject of the gunfire's origin" (Hougan, 36 fn.). 68. HSCA Vol. VI. 69. WR, 90-91, 519; CE 392; Dr. Ronald Jones Exhibit 1; 6 H 5-6, 12-14, 22, 33, 35, 37-38, 42, 48, 51, 55-56, 65, 67, 71, 143; *New York Times,* November 27, 1963; *L'Express,* February 20, 1964; Parkland Hospital press conference, November 22, 1963; *St. Louis Post-Dispatch,* December 1, 1963; NBC television log, November 22, 1963, 2:40 pm. 70. Ibid. 71. CD 7 (Sibert-O'Neill Report); 2 H 93, 361, 367. 72. 2 H 374, 376; 4 H 109, 127-28. 73. William Manchester, *Death of a President, 113.* 74. Michael Griffith, "Extra Bullets and Missed Shots in Dealey Plaza"; Weisberg, *Whitewash,* 187-89; Gerald Posner, *Case Closed,* 324; Jim Moore, *Conspiracy of One,* 198. Griffith's article is available on-line at: &&& 75. 6 H 238. 76. Ibid. &&& 77. John S. Craig, "The Guns of Dealey Plaza,"available on-line at: gopher://freenet. akron.oh.us/h0/SIGS/JFK/FP/fp.back_issues/.11th_Issue/guns_dp.html 78. 7 H 508-10. 79. Posner, 324; Moore, 198. 80. Craig, see citation #77. 81. 7 H 553, 555-56. 82. WR 105, 116. 83. Shaw and Harris, *Cover-Up,* 72-75; Marrs, 315. 84. Marrs, 315-6. 85. 19 H 467-68; Marrs, 24. 86. Clay Shaw trial transcript; HSCA Conspiracy Witness Report; Craig, see citation #77. 87. Griffith, Ibid.; Richard Trask, *Pictures of the Pain,* 573. 88. Ibid. 89. Griffith, Ibid.; Weisberg, *Never Again,* 383-90. 90. Griffith, Ibid.; Harrison E. Livingstone, *High Treason 2.* 91. Marrs, 317. 92. 7 HSCA 357; Carol Hewett, "Silencers, Sniper Rifles & the CIA," *PROBE,* Vol. 3, No. 1, November-December 1995; Craig, "The Guns of Dealey Plaza." Hewett's article is available on-line at: 93. Associated Press, January 5, 1978; 7 HSCA 395; Marrs, 317; Hewett,Ibid. 94. *Dallas Morning News,* December 23, 1978; Marrs, 604. 95. Hewett, Ibid., citing FBI Doc. #62-109060-5898. 96. In 1994, James E. Files, a prisoner serving a life sentence at Joliet State Pen.(Illinois) for murdering a policeman,"confessed" to the killing of JFK. Files claims to be a former employee of Chicago mobster Charles Nicoletti, and that at Nicoletti's request, he fired at JFK from behind the stockade fence on the grassy knoll. He says he fired the fatal head shot, a .222 caliber bullet from a Remington XP-100 single-shot pistol while others shot from behind. He claims he retrieved the spent shell, bit it "as a sort of calling card," and left it atop the stockade fence. However, two .222 Remington shells -- not one -- were found by John Rademacher, the closest one some twenty feet from where Files says he fired, the other about sixty feet away. There is quite a bit more to Files' story, including having received a guided tour of Dealey Plaza by Lee Harvey Oswald, meeting with Jack Ruby a few hours before the assassination, seeing future Watergate burglar Frank Sturgis watching the motorcade, and other controversial items. 97. Hewett, Ibid., citing 7 HSCA 157. 98. Hewett, Ibid., citing FBI Doc. #62-109060-1431. 99. Hewett, Ibid. 100. In 1993, a Dallas resident named Mike Robinson provided a shocking detail that had never been noted before anywhere in the news media or official records. Robinson, who was fourteen at the time, had been allowed into police headquarters with a friend of his whose father was a Dallas policeman. Robinson told researcher Walt Brown that he had a memory of Bobby Hargis he would never forget. Hargis had made it all the way back to DPD headquarters, caked with the President's blood and tissue, before the full realization of what had happened struck him. At that moment, Robinson saw Hargis hurl himself repeatedly into a wall until restrained by fellow officers. Despite what we have heard over the years about the rightward-leaning attitudes of the Dallas police, at least one DPD officer was literally overcome with grief that day (Walt Brown, *Treachery in Dallas*). 101. In recent years a team of Washington/Baltimore-area researchers has postulated a third head shot, also from the front, based on intensive scrutiny of the Zapruder film. The hypothesis was published in Harrison Livingstone's *Killing Kennedy,*and to date has not received a great deal of exposure. 102. WR 87-92; 2 H 16, 93, 127, 361; 3 H 380. 103. Harrison E. Livingstone, *Killing the Truth,* 277-8. 104. Ibid. 105. Harrison E. Livingstone, *High Treason 2*; Allan R. J. Eaglesham, "Interpretations of New Information in the Pitzer Case," *JFK/Deep Politics Quarterly,* April 1998. 106. See Harold Weisberg, *Post-Mortem.* 107. 7 HSCA 254-6.